Alternative Governance Structures in Megacities: Threats or Opportunities?
Ms Diane E Chido
Monograph by the US Army War College, Strategic Studies Institute, US Army War College Press
"Many cities are growing into “mega” land areas filled with complex terrain and populations where the U.S. military will undoubtedly have to engage. States often fail to provide basic services to some territories, leaving inhabitants disenfranchised. These gaps are then filled by social entrepreneurs, often ethnic or religious-based civil society groups—or even organized crime syndicates—who effectively identify niche needs in the marketplace and fill them more effectively than other competitors, including traditional state authorities. Leaders of these groups maintain control through various means, including: violence, coercion, and service provision; or through tribal, religious, or other cultural ties and structures."