Western Hemisphere

 
  •  A Contemporary Challenge to State Sovereignty: Gangs and Other Illicit Transnational Criminal Organizations (TCOs) in Central America, El Salvador, Mexico, Jamaica, and Brazil

    A Contemporary Challenge to State Sovereignty: Gangs and Other Illicit Transnational Criminal Organizations (TCOs) in Central America, El Salvador, Mexico, Jamaica, and Brazil

    A Contemporary Challenge to State Sovereignty: Gangs and Other Illicit Transnational Criminal Organizations (TCOs) in Central America, El Salvador, Mexico, Jamaica, and Brazil Dr Max G Manwaring Monograph by the US Army War College, Strategic Studies Institute "Another kind of war within the context of a “clash of civilizations” is being waged in various parts of the Americas, Africa, Asia, Europe, the Middle East, and elsewhere around the world. Some of the main protagonists are those who have come to be designated as first-, second-, and third-generation street gangs, as well as their various possible allies such as traditional Transnational Criminal Organizations (TCOs). In this new type of war, national security and sovereignty of affected countries is being impinged every day, and gangs’ illicit commercial motives are, in fact, becoming an ominous political agenda."
    • Published On: 12/1/2007
  •  American Grand Strategy for Latin America in the Age of Resentment

    American Grand Strategy for Latin America in the Age of Resentment

    American Grand Strategy for Latin America in the Age of Resentment Dr Gabriel Marcella Monograph by the US Army War College, Strategic Studies Institute "The fear that extra-hemispheric powers would strategically deny Latin America as a friend of the United States has animated American statesmen since the 19th century. Such fear certainly pervaded the Cold war competition. Today the challenge to the security and well-being of Latin America is neither ideological, nor military, nor external. Strategic denial is more likely to come about from a highly combustible blend of poverty, crime, despair, corruption, resentment, and antidemocratic sentiments that promise a vague 21st century socialism under new authoritarian clothing. The sentiments are sinking deep roots in the socio-political landscape, and they are profoundly anti-American. "
    • Published On: 9/1/2007
  •  The Reserve Policies of Nations: A Comparative Analysis

    The Reserve Policies of Nations: A Comparative Analysis

    The Reserve Policies of Nations: A Comparative Analysis Dr Richard Weitz Monograph by the US Army War College, Strategic Studies Institute "While the American defense community has naturally been preoccupied with the extensive transformation of the U.S. reserve components in recent years, equally critical developments in the reserve policies of the world’s other major military powers have received less attention. The inevitability of continued American engagement with these countries means that their changing policies are highly relevant to the United States. American defense planners should therefore keep abreast of ongoing alterations in these countries’ reserve components and, in certain cases, might wish to adjust their own forces and policies in response."
    • Published On: 9/1/2007
  •  China's Expansion into and U.S. Withdrawal from Argentina's Telecommunications and Space Industries and the Implications for U.S. National Security

    China's Expansion into and U.S. Withdrawal from Argentina's Telecommunications and Space Industries and the Implications for U.S. National Security

    China's Expansion into and U.S. Withdrawal from Argentina's Telecommunications and Space Industries and the Implications for U.S. National Security Ms Janie Hulse Monograph by the US Army War College, Strategic Studies Institute "The U.S. Government is waking up to China’s growing presence in Latin America. For the last several years as U.S. policymakers’ attention and resources, largely diverted from Latin America, have been focused on the Middle East, China has pursued a policy of economic engagement with the region. Sino-Latin American trade has sky-rocketed, and Chinese investment in the region is picking up. In this monograph, Ms. Janie Hulse, a Latin American specialist based in Buenos Aires, Argentina, argues that increased Chinese investment in regional telecommunications and space industries has implications for U.S. national security. She believes that globalization, advances in information technology and China’s growing capacity and interest in information warfare make the United States particularly vulnerable. Ms. Hulse details China’s expansion into and U.S. withdrawal from these intelligence-related industries in Argentina and highlights associated risks for the United States. The author calls for the U.S. Government to react to this current trend by increasing its engagement in regional strategic industries and bettering relationships with its southern neighbors."
    • Published On: 9/1/2007
  •  Security Requirements for Post-Transition Cuba

    Security Requirements for Post-Transition Cuba

    Security Requirements for Post-Transition Cuba Dr Alex Crowther Monograph by the US Army War College, Strategic Studies Institute "The transfer of power from Fidel Castro to his brother, Raul, in August 2006 prompted the Economist to declare “the beginning of the end of the Castro era.” Although no one knows when Fidel will finally pass on the reins of power, the time is approaching. Another unknown is the type of handoff. Fidel could be succeeded by another communist regime, or there could be a transition to a different type of regime. The worst case scenario would find Cuba descending into chaos if no one could replicate Fidel’s ability to hold Cuba together."
    • Published On: 8/1/2007
  •  Latin America's New Security Reality: Irregular Asymmetric Conflict and Hugo Chavez

    Latin America's New Security Reality: Irregular Asymmetric Conflict and Hugo Chavez

    Latin America's New Security Reality: Irregular Asymmetric Conflict and Hugo Chavez Dr Max G Manwaring Monograph by the US Army War College, Strategic Studies Institute "Since his election as President of Venezuela in 1998, Hugo Chavez has encouraged and continues to encourage his Venezuelan and other Latin American followers to pursue a confrontational “defensive,” populist, and nationalistic agenda that will supposedly liberate Latin America from the economic dependency and the political imperialism of the North American “Colossus” (the United States). Chavez argues that liberation, New Socialism, and Bolivarianismo (the dream of a Latin American Liberation Movement against U.S. hegemony) will only be achieved by (1) radically changing the traditional politics of the Venezuelan state to that of “direct” (totalitarian) democracy; (2) destroying North American hegemony throughout all of Latin America by (3) conducting an irregular and asymmetric “Super Insurgency,” or “Fourth-Generation Warfare” to depose the illegitimate external enemy; and, 4) building a new Bolivarian state, beginning with Venezuela and extending to the whole of Latin America."
    • Published On: 8/1/2007
  •  North Korean Foreign Relations in the Post-Cold War World

    North Korean Foreign Relations in the Post-Cold War World

    North Korean Foreign Relations in the Post-Cold War World Dr Samuel S Kim Monograph by the US Army War College, Strategic Studies Institute "In this monograph, Dr. Samuel Kim examines North Korea’s foreign relations with China, Russia, Japan, the United States, and South Korea during the post-Cold War era. He argues that central to understanding North Korea’s international behavior in the 21st century is the extent to which the policies of the United States have shaped that behavior. Although some readers may not agree with all of Dr. Kim’s interpretations and assessments, they nevertheless will find his analysis simulating and extremely informative."
    • Published On: 4/1/2007
  •  Belize 2021 National Security Framework: Strengthening the Links between Policy, Resource Allocation and Execution

    Belize 2021 National Security Framework: Strengthening the Links between Policy, Resource Allocation and Execution

    Belize 2021 National Security Framework: Strengthening the Links between Policy, Resource Allocation and Execution COL Dale C Eikmeier, Prof Bernard F Griffard Issue Paper by the US Army War College, Center for Strategic Leadership "The absence of an institutionalized process for long-range national security planning is a strategic disadvantage. To reduce risk and achieve Vision 2021, Belize requires an integrated national security architecture that develops policy, coordinates action plans, monitors execution, reviews progress and maintains a long-term perspective. Currently, the government does not possess an adequate national security planning structure with the requisit capability. Redesigning the current national security architecture so that it provides long-range planning, coordination between cabinet ministers and their agencies, and monitoring of security programs can be the difference between success and failure of a national security strategy. "
    • Published On: 12/15/2006
  •  Castro's Cuba: Quo Vadis?

    Castro's Cuba: Quo Vadis?

    Castro's Cuba: Quo Vadis? Dr Francisco Wong-Diaz Monograph by US Army War College, Strategic Studies Institute "The United States, particularly the Army, has a long history of involvement with Cuba. It has included, among others, the Spanish-American War of 1898, military interventions in 1906 and 1912, the 1961 Bay of Pigs Invasion, the 1962 Missile Crisis, counterinsurgency, and low intensity warfare in Latin America and Africa against Cuban supported guerrilla movements."
    • Published On: 12/1/2006
  •  Defense, Development, and Diplomacy (3D): Canadian and U.S. Military Perspectives

    Defense, Development, and Diplomacy (3D): Canadian and U.S. Military Perspectives

    Defense, Development, and Diplomacy (3D): Canadian and U.S. Military Perspectives Dr Max G Manwaring Colloquium Brief by the US Army War College, Strategic Studies Institute, with Queens University, and the Canadian Land Forces Doctrine and Training System "War has changed. New organizing principles require a new paradigm that facilitates change from a singular military approach to a multidimensional, multi organizational, and multilateral/multinational whole-of-government and whole-of-alliance/coalition approach to deal more effectively with the contemporary global security reality."
    • Published On: 10/1/2006
  •  Belize 2021: Ends, Ways, Means and Risk Management: Belize National Security Strategy Formulation Process Workshop #2

    Belize 2021: Ends, Ways, Means and Risk Management: Belize National Security Strategy Formulation Process Workshop #2

    Belize 2021: Ends, Ways, Means and Risk Management: Belize National Security Strategy Formulation Process Workshop #2 COL Dale C Eikmeier, Prof Bernard F Griffard Issue Paper by the US Army War College, Center for Strategic Leadership "On August 22, 2006 planners representing Belize’s security organizations and other government agencies reconvened to continue their national security strategy formulation process. Their initial efforts in June 2006, reported in CSL Issue Paper, Belize 2021: Developing a National Security Strategy for the Future, July 2006, Volume 06-06, produced the Belize 2021 Vision, its national goals, and identified tiered threats to success that required counter-strategies. This paper looks at the continuing process to develop Belize’s roadmap to 2021 exercised during this second strategy formulation workshop."
    • Published On: 9/15/2006
  •  Belize 2021: Developing a National Security Strategy for the Future

    Belize 2021: Developing a National Security Strategy for the Future

    Belize 2021: Developing a National Security Strategy for the Future Prof Bernard F Griffard Issue Paper by the US Army War College, Center for Strategic Leadership "Enhancing hemispheric stability and security in the Central America and Caribbean regions is dependent on the development of cohesive Regional Security Strategies. To achieve this goal the U.S. Southern Command (USSOUTHCOM) is setting a foundation by building regional partnerships one nation at a time. "
    • Published On: 7/15/2006
  •  Canadian Defense Policy--A breath of Fresh Air

    Canadian Defense Policy--A breath of Fresh Air

    Canadian Defense Policy--A breath of Fresh Air Dr Alex Crowther Op-Ed by the US Army War College, Strategic Studies Institute "Canada and the United States closely cooperated in most security issues during the 20th century. In recent years, however, security relations between Canada and the United States have become strained, mainly due to disagreements on the methods used by the United States in prosecuting the Global War on Terror. The first policy issue was the Canadian government’s decision to decrease security resources significantly in the wake of the Cold War. The second issue centers on Canada’s disagreement concerning Operation IRAQI FREEDOM, as well as other U.S. policy decisions such as the use of Guantanamo Bay."
    • Published On: 7/1/2006
  •  The Challenge of Governance and Security

    The Challenge of Governance and Security

    The Challenge of Governance and Security Dr Max G Manwaring Colloquium Brief by the US Army War College, Strategic Studies Institute, with the U.S. Southern Command, the Latin American and Caribbean Center of Florida International University "A contemporary assessment of Latin American and Caribbean security must address a comprehensive, all-inclusive threat environment and consider the utility of all instruments of state power."
    • Published On: 3/1/2006
  •  The Mexican Armed Forces in Transition

    The Mexican Armed Forces in Transition

    The Mexican Armed Forces in Transition Dr Jordi Diez, COL Ian Nicholls Monograph by the US Army War College, Strategic Studies Institute "After the September 11, 2001 (9/11), attacks on the United States, homeland defense became the primary issue in U.S. defense policy. At the same time, it was clear that homeland defense would have to become a trilateral continental issue, and, thus, would have to include Canada and Mexico. Because the United States and Canada already had developed a relatively close relationship during and after World War II as a result of their common interests and efforts in NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization) and NORAD (North American Air Defense), it became important to begin to understand the Mexican armed forces and their capabilities. This monograph, written from a Canadian prospective, is a significant step in that direction."
    • Published On: 1/1/2006
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