Western Hemisphere

 
  •  Democratic Governance and the Rule of Law: Lessons From Colombia

    Democratic Governance and the Rule of Law: Lessons From Colombia

    Democratic Governance and the Rule of Law: Lessons From Colombia Gabriel Marcella PKSOI Paper by the US Army War College, Peacekeeping and Stability Operations Institute, US Army War College Press "Colombia has experienced conflict for decades. In the 1990s it was a paradigm of the failing state, beset with all manner of troubles: terrorism, kidnapping, murder, drug trafficking, corruption, an economic downturn of major scope, general lawlessness, and brain drain. Today the country is much safer, and the agents of violence are clearly on the defensive. Nonetheless, much work lies ahead to secure the democratic system. Security and the rule of law are fundamental to the task."
    • Published On: 12/1/2009
  •  Mind-Sets and Missiles: a First Hand Account of the Cuban Missile Crisis

    Mind-Sets and Missiles: a First Hand Account of the Cuban Missile Crisis

    Mind-Sets and Missiles: a First Hand Account of the Cuban Missile Crisis Mr Kenneth Michael Absher Letort Paper by US Army War College, Strategic Studies Institute "This Letort Paper provides a detailed chronology and analysis of the intelligence failures and successes of the Cuban Missile Crisis. The author, Mr. Kenneth Absher, contends that, when our national security is at stake, the United States should not hesitate to undertake risky intelligence collection operations, including espionage, to penetrate our adversary’s deceptions. At the same time, the United States must also understand that our adversary may not believe the gravity of our policy warnings or may not allow its own agenda to be influenced by U.S. diplomatic pressure."
    • Published On: 9/1/2009
  •  Dealing with Political Ferment in Latin America: The Populist Revival, the Emergence of the Center, and Implications for U.S. Policy

    Dealing with Political Ferment in Latin America: The Populist Revival, the Emergence of the Center, and Implications for U.S. Policy

    Dealing with Political Ferment in Latin America: The Populist Revival, the Emergence of the Center, and Implications for U.S. Policy Dr Hal Brands Monograph by the US Army War College, Strategic Studies Institute "Over the past decade, Latin America has experienced considerable political upheaval. Persistent poverty, corruption, and public insecurity have produced profound popular dissatisfaction and caused widespread ideological ferment. While the electoral results of this ferment are frequently described as a “lurch to the left,” such descriptions are misleading. Latin America is not experiencing a uniform shift to the left; it is witnessing a competition between two very different political trends. "
    • Published On: 9/1/2009
  •  A "New" Dynamic in the Western Hemisphere Security Environment: The Mexican Zetas and Other Private Armies

    A "New" Dynamic in the Western Hemisphere Security Environment: The Mexican Zetas and Other Private Armies

    A "New" Dynamic in the Western Hemisphere Security Environment: The Mexican Zetas and Other Private Armies Dr Max G Manwaring Monograph by the US Army War College, Strategic Studies Institute "There is a large number of nonstate actors in the Western Hemisphere and around the world that exercise violence to advance their causes, radicalize the population, and move slowly but surely toward the achievement of their ideological and self-enrichment dreams. In Mexico, these nonstate actors have included a complex and enigmatic mix of transnational criminal organizations (TCOs) (cartels and mafia); enforcer gangs; political and ideological insurgents; and paramilitary “vigilante” organizations that generate violence and instability, erode democracy and the state, and challenge national security and sovereignty. The author, Dr. Max Manwaring, explains that a new and dangerous dynamic has been inserted into the already crowded Mexican and Western Hemisphere security arena. That new dynamic is represented by a private military organization called the Zetas."
    • Published On: 9/1/2009
  •  The Role of Cuban Paramilitary Organizations (People's Militias) in the Post-Castro Era

    The Role of Cuban Paramilitary Organizations (People's Militias) in the Post-Castro Era

    The Role of Cuban Paramilitary Organizations (People's Militias) in the Post-Castro Era Dr Max G Manwaring Op-Ed by the US Army War College, Strategic Studies Institute "Armed nonstate groups all over the world are directly challenging targeted governments’ physical and moral right and ability to govern. This almost chronic chaos is exacerbated by traditional nationstate actors using nonstate popular militias, youth leagues, gangs, or their equivalents to help the take control, maintain control, or regain control of a given political-economic-social entity. It is in this context that popular militias have been organized, trained, and nurtured in Cuba."
    • Published On: 8/1/2009
  •  State and Nonstate Associated Gangs: Credible "Midwives of New Social Orders"

    State and Nonstate Associated Gangs: Credible "Midwives of New Social Orders"

    State and Nonstate Associated Gangs: Credible "Midwives of New Social Orders" Dr Max G Manwaring Monograph by the US Army War College, Strategic Studies Institute "This monograph introduces a misunderstood aspect of “wars among the people.” The author addresses the interesting subject of the multifaceted nature and predominant role of gangs operating as state and nonstate proxies in the modern unbalanced global security environment. In every phase of the process of compelling radical political change, agitator-gangs and popular militias play significant roles in helping their political patrons prepare to take control of a targeted political-social entity. As a result, gangs (bandas criminales or whatever they may be called) are important components of a highly complex political-psychological-military act—contemporary irregular asymmetrical political war. In these terms, this monograph is relevant to modern political discussions regarding “new” socialism, populism and neopopulism, and hegemonic state and nonstate challenges to stronger opponents. "
    • Published On: 5/1/2009
  •  Mexico's Narco-Insurgency and U.S. Counterdrug Policy

    Mexico's Narco-Insurgency and U.S. Counterdrug Policy

    Mexico's Narco-Insurgency and U.S. Counterdrug Policy Dr Hal Brands Monograph by the US Army War College, Strategic Studies Institute "On June 30, 2008, President George W. Bush signed into law the Merida Initiative, a 3-year, $1.4 billion counterdrug assistance program for Mexico and Central America. The bulk of this money is destined for Mexico, where it will help fund counternarcotics operations against the powerful cartels that have recently turned much of that country into a war zone. Since 2006, Mexico has suffered thousands of drug-related killings, a dramatic deterioration of public security, and severe psychological and social trauma; the Merida Initiative aims to rectify this situation by giving the Mexican government the tools to take the offensive in its fight against the drug traffickers. The program is likely to be extended in some form when its original mandate expires, and thus presages a long-term U.S. commitment to counternarcotics in Mexico."
    • Published On: 5/1/2009
  •  Drug Trafficking, Violence, and the State in Mexico

    Drug Trafficking, Violence, and the State in Mexico

    Drug Trafficking, Violence, and the State in Mexico Dr Phil Williams Op-Ed by the US Army War College, Strategic Studies Institute, US Army War College Press "Headlines and television commentaries about Mexico becoming a failed state as a result of drug-related violence have become a dime a dozen. Terms such as “criminal insurgency,” “narco-terrorism,” and narco-insurgency are all used to describe the widespread killings. The Joint Operating Environment Report of 2008 even suggested that Mexico, along with Pakistan, could suffer from a dramatic collapse of the state, with serious implications for U.S. national security."
    • Published On: 4/1/2009
  •  Kiss the Embargo Goodbye

    Kiss the Embargo Goodbye

    Kiss the Embargo Goodbye Dr Alex Crowther Op-Ed by the US Army War College, Strategic Studies Institute "The embargo on Cuba has been in place for almost 50 years. Although it may have been an appropriate policy response to the Cuban Revolution in the milieu of the Cold War, the reality of the 21st century calls for its abolishment. It is time to kiss the embargo goodbye, while maintaining an unyielding stance that democracy is the only acceptable form of government in the Western Hemisphere."
    • Published On: 2/1/2009
  •  War without Borders: The Colombia-Ecuador Crisis of 2008

    War without Borders: The Colombia-Ecuador Crisis of 2008

    War without Borders: The Colombia-Ecuador Crisis of 2008 Dr Gabriel Marcella Monograph by the US Army War College, Strategic Studies Institute "Unprotected borders are a serious threat to the security of a number of states around the globe. Indeed, the combination of weak states, ungoverned space, terrorism, and international criminal networks make a mockery of the Westphalian system of international order. Latin American countries are experiencing all of these maladies in varying degrees. The Andean region is under assault by a different kind of war that defies borders. In this context, Dr. Gabriel Marcella analyzes the lessons to be learned from the Colombian attack against the clandestine camp of the the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia, which was located at an isolated area within Ecuador on March 1, 2008. This single incident and its aftermath had profound reverberations throughout the Hemisphere. "
    • Published On: 12/1/2008
  •  Caribbean Engineer and Environmental Conference

    Caribbean Engineer and Environmental Conference

    Caribbean Engineer and Environmental Conference Arthur L Bradshaw, Dr Kent H Butts, Ms Marcela Ramirez Issue Paper by the US Army War College, Center for Strategic Leadership "The Command Engineer Office, United States Southern Command (USSOUTHCOM), with collaboration from the United States Army War College’s Center for Strategic Leadership, conducted a successful four day Engineer and Environment Conference between 2 and 5 September 2008 in San Jose, Puerto Rico. The purpose of the conference was to foster cooperation between United States Government (USG) agencies, the civilian and military leadership of Caribbean states, and the academic community on environmental engineering issues and disaster response activities."
    • Published On: 11/16/2008
  •  Chavez - The Beginning of the End

    Chavez - The Beginning of the End

    Chavez - The Beginning of the End Dr Alex Crowther Op-Ed by the US Army War College, Strategic Studies Institute "The President of Venezuela, Hugo Chavez, is on the way into the history books. Although he is still positioned to create problems for the Venezuelan people, the Colombians, and others throughout the Western Hemisphere that he chooses to victimize, he is no longer on the ascent."
    • Published On: 6/1/2008
  •  After Fidel, The Deluge?

    After Fidel, The Deluge?

    After Fidel, The Deluge? Dr Alex Crowther Op-Ed by the US Army War College, Strategic Studies Institute "As Louis XV allegedly said, “Apres moi, le deluge.” Certainly people have thought that Cuba after Fidel would be the same. How would a Cuban state that revolves around him survive his departure? How would a government where no decision is too small for his attention function? How would the generations who have known no one other than the “Maximo Lider” handle the change? Luckily for the Cuban government, the answer is—there will be almost no change in the near future. No deluge, just a drizzle."
    • Published On: 3/1/2008
  •  The Political Context Behind Successful Revolutionary Movements, Three Case Studies: Vietnam (1955-63), Algeria (1945-62), and Nicaragua (1967-79)

    The Political Context Behind Successful Revolutionary Movements, Three Case Studies: Vietnam (1955-63), Algeria (1945-62), and Nicaragua (1967-79)

    The Political Context Behind Successful Revolutionary Movements, Three Case Studies: Vietnam (1955-63), Algeria (1945-62), and Nicaragua (1967-79) LTC Raymond A Millen Monograph by the US Army War College, Strategic Studies Institute "Lieutenant Colonel Raymond Millen examines the extent to which some states create the conditions for revolutionary movements to flourish. Employing Jeff Goodwin’s analytical framework for exploring the political context behind revolutionary movements, Lieutenant Colonel Millen explores how the governments in Vietnam (1955-63), Algeria (1945-62), and Nicaragua (1967-79) unintentionally empowered revolutionary movements, resulting in these governments’ demise. He supplements Goodwin’s framework by including an examination of the insurgent leadership’s political-military acumen. "
    • Published On: 3/1/2008
  •  Intelligence Scotomas in Central and South America, The Proteus Monograph Series, Volume 1, Issue 4

    Intelligence Scotomas in Central and South America, The Proteus Monograph Series, Volume 1, Issue 4

    Intelligence Scotomas in Central and South America, The Proteus Monograph Series, Volume 1, Issue 4 John B Alexander Issue Paper by the US Army War College, Center for Strategic Leadership, Proteus Monograph Series Fellows Program " 'Why should I care?' This response from a U.S. Army staff officer may seem like a strange introduction to a monograph on national security issues, but it actually strikes at the crux of the problem. The comment was made by a lieutenant colonel assigned to the Department of the Army’s G-3 office when told that there were significant problems emerging in South America. He is far from alone in his reflexive analysis, or lack thereof. It is indicative of the understaffed, overworked, and terminally focused attitude that permeates everything in the Pentagon. Combat pilots call this target fixation, and for the Department of Defense, the current target is Iraq and the Middle East."
    • Published On: 3/1/2008
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