The Department of Defense's continued review of the United States capability and capacity for combating terrorism has identified significant gaps and areas for improvement. One of the critical areas is the need to effectively Counter Ideological Support to Terrorism, or CIST. To assist in those efforts a Joint Staff conference, The Military Role in Addressing the Underlying Conditions of Terrorism, was held in April. The conference brought together key interagency players with representatives from all of the Combatant Commands (COCOMs). COCOM representatives were able to learn the latest interagency programs to address CIST and the challenges to their implementation. The interagency representatives learned lessons from how the military element of power has been successfully used to support interagency efforts addressing local conditions that terrorists seek to exploit.