The attacks of September 11, 2001, represented the beginning of what President Bush has called "a new kind of war." While terrorism itself has long been on our spectrum of real and immediate threats, the magnitude of the attacks and the administration's aggressive and expansive response have changed the definition of national security. Homeland security, the new first priority, needs to be integrated with more traditional national security concerns. The role of the Intelligence Community must strike a new balance in terms of foreign intelligence and domestic security. The military mission should be redefined. Meeting all of these challenges demands a fundamental transformation of American strategy, armed forces, and national security organization. This conference identified key issues and questions and was the inaugural event in a long-term project to assess defense transformation. This report summarizes the discussions from that workshop.