This handbook is primarily for commanders and planners, rather than for lawyers. It is a practical guide that provides templates, tools, best practices, and lessons learned for planning and execution at the theater-of-operations level and below. Its primary purpose is to aid US military commanders and planners to more fully understand their roles and tasks in establishing ROL in fragile states during stability operations, in failed states, or in occupied territory in the immediate post-conflict period. Planning and executing ROL efforts to support military missions and giving legal advice to the commander on those missions are two different functions. While legal professionals are critical participants in ROL activities to support joint operations, planning for operations which include tasks to restore or strengthen ROL is a commander and operational planner responsibility.