This monograph analyzes the occupation of Germany after World War II and the occupation of Iraq after major combat operations in Operation IRAQI FREEDOM to understand the similarities between the two operations and to highlight the lessons learned from both. Allied forces spent much time planning and preparing for the occupation of the Axis countries, obtaining practical experience in North Africa, Sicily, and France as they pressed on toward Berlin. Unity of command and unity of effort ensured the effective governance of Germany, helping to make it the vibrant country that it is today, ranking in the top five countries in many metrics. Iraq has not been as fortunate, and has only started to move forward within the last 3 to 4 of the almost 9 years of occupation there. The United States did not have as much time to plan for the occupation, and unity of command was not achieved in the beginning, causing a lack of security during the initial years of the occupation. While we cannot yet know the outcome of Iraq, there is hope that it will become our friend in the years to come. However, we can take some lessons from both of these operations and apply them to the future.