Participants considered the PLA’s relationship with the Chinese Communist Party; trends in the PLA’s ongoing reforms to informationalize, mechanize, and adapt to China’s evolving defense needs; and the PLA’s role in tackling internal security challenges. PLA operations abroad were discussed, with participants assessing trends in the pace, scope, goals, and success of logistics reform and the impact of these reforms on PLA capabilities. Deficiencies are well-documented, but significant progress is being made. The exact pace, scale, and success of the PLA’s modernization efforts must be assessed. Participants were tasked to address how the PLA is determining what types of missions it will undertake and analyze the process by which these missions are created and assigned. In addition, attendees were asked to disaggregate the PLA’s aspirational goals from its current capabilities. Finally, in addition to examining how the PLA is employing new operational capabilities at home and abroad, participants were challenged to assess the PLA’s own measures for improvement.