In the past half-century, the classic military conflict of armies maneuvering in the field has been replaced by conflicts that center on, rather than avoid, heavily populated areas. Modern military conflict more frequently is not just a fight to control villages or cities, but a variation on the timeless wish to control populations and the hearts of nations. The hardware and mass orientation of the levee en masse and industrial-age armies is being replaced by sophisticated terrorists, information warfare, and the politics of mass persuasion. These are reshaping the face of warfare. This book focuses on identifying the lessons of previous military operations--from combat to humanitarian operations--which will be useful to the U.S. military in the future in conducting operations in urban areas abroad and at home.