The ideas and issues presented in this collection of papers from the Twelfth Annual Strategy Conference conducted by the U.S. Army War College in April 2001 will educate and inform anyone interested in the past and future course of American defense reform. Though conference attendees had many differing opinions about the barriers to defense transformation and how to overcome them, a broad consensus formed that some change is essential to meet future security requirements. They observed at the time that it is ironic that the peace which creates the prosperity and wealth to fund transformation and permits a window of time to achieve it, also decreases public interest and urgency to accomplish it. The terrible events of September 11, 2001, appear to have dispelled public disinterest in the nation s military capabilities, and may provide increased impetus for the drive for defense reform. If the opportunity is squandered, or the wrong choices are made, the costs to the nation someday could be catastrophic.