Army War College Publication Repository      Total Publications 269


Author: Cynthia E. Ayers

Published: July 2017

Recent successful "hacks," allegedly carried out by professionals acting on behalf of, or in concert with nation-states have heightened concerns about cyber warfare and sovereignty in the context of cyberspace. To maintain the integrity of U.S. and allied sovereign borders, it is imperative that security measures and defenses are coordinated and choreographed at the policy, strategy, and operational levels in the cyber domain, as well as in the physical world. The determination of what constitutes cyber sovereignty will greatly influence identification and understanding of threats, Department of Defense (DoD) preparation of the battlefield, the development of capabilities, the identification of participants, and planning for cyberspace operations. Considering the stakes, U.S. leaders cannot afford the consequences of allowing the enemy to define the boundaries of cyber sovereignty and the rules of cyberspace engagement.


Author: Mr Samuel R White Jr

Published: January 2017

In 1994 the Army embarked on the Army After Next (AAN) study plan to explore new concepts and think innovatively about how the Army would fight in the future. Envisioned as way to develop the Army after Force XXI (thought to be the Army of 2025), the AAN project was chartered by the Chief of Staff of the Army and grew to involve a wide range of participants. The Army War College contributed to the AAN effort through strategic wargames, experimentation and student and faculty research. One of the initiatives was the AAN Seminar – a special program in Academic Year 1997 – composed of students who were interested in contributing to the development of the future Army. The current Army War College Futures Seminar is loosely modeled on the AAN Seminar. As with the AAN seminar, Future Seminar students and faculty collaborate to explore the Army of the Future…in this case, the Army of 2030 and beyond. As with previous years, the seminar focused on the requirements for an Army of the future – and sought to explore the question: “What kind of Army does the nation need in 2030 and beyond?” This 3rd annual compendium is one output of their thoughts.


Published: November 2016

The Collins Center Update is a quarterly newsletter detailing the activities of the Center for Strategic Leadership, United States Army War College. Articles in this double issue include, Basic Strategic Art Program Situation Report, C/JFLCC Course 3-16, USAWC Hosts International Analytical Exchange, Cyber Sovereignty - Operations Focus Workshop, The Human Dimension Department, Full Mobilization Wargame, Wargaming: Application of Innovative Approaches and Solutions, and the Department of Technology Integration (DTI) Update.


Published: June 2016

The Collins Center Update is a quarterly newsletter detailing the activities of the Center for Strategic Leadership, United States Army War College. Articles in this double issue include: Facing the Worst Case Scenario: The Military and Law Enforcement in Extreme Crises, C/JFLCC Course 2-16, Strategic Mission Command: "Growing and Enabling Agile Leadership to Advance U.S. National Security.", The U.S. Army War College Strategic Wargame Program, ISIS Crisis: A Matrix Wargame, Talking the Talk at the School of Strategic Landpower: A Post-9/11 Landpower Appraisal, The ISCNE Premiers at the Middlebury Institute for International Studies


Author: COL Florian Circiumaru, Colonel Mark V Montesclaros

Published: May 2016

Beginning in 2009, a multinational team of NATO professional military education (PME) experts began providing assistance to the Republic of Moldova's Armed Forces at the Moldovan Military Institute (later Academy (MMA)) in Chisinau. The team's broad purpose was to help the Moldovan military adjust from a Soviet-style military educational system to one that more closely mirrored NATO and Western standards. First was revamping the "Basic Course," followed by the development, from scratch, of a senior officers' course, including a Master's degree (Level II) program, which was completed in a remarkably short time - less than two years between initial brainstorming and course start. That it took a "team effort" goes without saying. While the Moldovans could not have done it alone, MMA was at the epicenter of successful multiple efforts, all designed to modernize its PME to meet the demands of the 21st century operational environment.


Editor: Mr Samuel R White Jr

Author: Mr Samuel R White Jr

Published: December 2015

The Academic Year 2015 (AY15) Futures Seminar elective at the U.S. Army War College encouraged students to examine a topic relevant to the development and implementation of Army initiatives in 2025 and beyond. Loosely modeled on a series of "Army After Next" studies conducted by U.S. Army War College students in the late 1990s, the course is designed to leverage student experience, research and thought to provide recommendations to senior Army leaders on key Army futures issues. The pathway for the AY15 Seminar was built upon our exploration of a central idea - a guiding principle. Grounded by the framework provided in the October 2014 Army Operating Concept, the Seminar explored the fundamental question:

"What kind of Army does the nation need in 2025 and beyond?"

This compendium represents 23 students' peek into the Army of 2025+. Some ideas and recommendations are specific and affect narrow slices of the Army; others are broad and span multiple services or components. Some are tactical; others strategic. Some very aspirational; others very practical. Regardless, they are the thoughts of strategic thinkers who have embraced their responsibility to help posture the enterprise for the future by thinking and writing about tough issues. The enterprise is better for their effort.


Published: November 2015

Shaping the Environment: Combined/Joint Force Land Component Commander Course 3-15 (C/JFLCC 3-15)
ISCNE Program: Continuing to Challenge Participants while Retooling Focus
Army Wargaming Community of Practice Workshop
Electromagnetic Spectrum Maneuver Workshop
Mission Command Network (MCN) Wargame
CSL's Strategic Simulation Division Up and Running
An Experiment in Support of the Gettysburg Battlefield Staff Ride
China Futures II Wargame: Hypothetical Conflict between the United States and People's Republic of China


Published: September 2015

The Collins Center Update is a quarterly newsletter detailing the activities of the Center for Strategic Leadership and Development, The United States Army War College. Articles in this issue include
"Executive Leader Course 15-02"
"Sustaining Professionalism: USAWC Strategic Planning Support to Burkina Faso"
"Strategy Education Conference, May 2015"
"Northwest Africa Wargame Informs AFRICOM Planning"
"The Heritage Foundation on U.S. Military Strength"
"USAWC's Homeland Defense and Security Community of Interest"


Author: COL Gregory K Anderson, COL Karen L Briggman, COL Joseph E Hilbert, COL Gert-Jan Kooij, Lt Col Christopher T Lay, Dr James C McNaughton

Published: May 2015

With the reemergence of Russian aggression in 2014, a team of six students from the Carlisle Scholars Program (CSP) at the USAWC began a six-month project to assess the driving factors behind Russian foreign and security policy, in order to better anticipate future behavior. The CSP team created a visualization and formal paper describing what it came to term "the Russian System" and later partnered with the Center of Strategic Leadership and Development (CSLD) to conduct a strategic-level wargame on 15-16 April 2015 to test key hypotheses and expand collaborative learning. This report provides some insights into the broader project, but is more focused on the results of the wargame and how those results can inform future thinking about U.S. - Russian relations.


Published: April 2015

The Collins Center Update is a quarterly newsletter detailing the activities of the Center for Strategic Leadership and Development, The United States Army War College. Articles in this issue include: "Executive Leader Course", "Visionary Support to Argonne National Laboratory", "Land Component Command in a Complex World", "Support to CENTCOM: Theater Security Cooperation and the UAE", "FDIC Cyber Revelation and Cyber Security", "Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives: Flexibility of the Strategic Leaders Staff Ride Program", "SIMULEX 2014" and "NATO Futures Wargame Examines NATO Challenges."


Published: March 2015

The Collins Center Update is a quarterly newsletter detailing the activities of the Center for Strategic Leadership and Development, The United States Army War College. Articles in this issue include: "Executive Leader Course", "Visionary Support to Argonne National Laboratory", "Land Component Command in a Complex World", "Support to CENTCOM: Theater Security Cooperation and the UAE", "FDIC Cyber Revelation and Cyber Security", "Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives: Flexibility of the Strategic Leaders Staff Ride Program", "SIMULEX 2014" and "NATO Futures Wargame Examines NATO Challenges."


Author: Lieutenant Colonel Brent A Kauffman

Published: January 2015

In January 2015, the U.S. Army War College (USAWC) conducted a workshop focused on understanding the human elements of military operations. Two groups of experts from the behavioral and social sciences participated in an interdisciplinary examination of what human elements military leaders, planners, and soldiers need to consider when operating in foreign lands. The participants created two very different and flexible frameworks that offer a deeper understanding of the human elements than many current constructs and checklists offer.


Published: September 2014

The Collins Center Update is a quarterly newsletter detailing the activities of the Center for Strategic Leadership and Development, The United States Army War College. Articles in this double issue include: "Senior Leader Staff Ride Program Update", "USAWC and Army Heritage and Education Center (AHEC) Drawdown Conference", "International Alumni Peace and Security Course (IAPSC)", "Wargame Looks at the Crisis in Ukraine", "The Futures Seminar", "Joint Land, Air and Sea Strategic Exercise Program Concludes 32nd Year with Largest Class", and "Strengthening the Professionalism of the Burkina Faso Armed Forces: Building a National Military Strategy."


Editor: Mr Samuel R White Jr

Author: Mr Samuel R White Jr

Published: June 2014

Academic Year 2014 (AY14) marked the inaugural year for the Futures Seminar - an elective course offered to resident students during the Term II elective period (Feb-Mar 2014) at the U.S. Army War College (USAWC). The 17 students who participated in the Futures Seminar were a true cross-section of the Army. Active duty, Army Reserve, Army National Guard and Department of the Army Civilians - the class was well represented across all segments and greatly benefited from the diversity of ideas as well as experiences. But all the students did share one common belief - that the Army once again stands at a transition point; now is the time for honest introspection and bold ideas. These papers represent 17 different recommendations by 17 different Army War College Students. In their words they look to add one small bit of perspective to one small piece of the very large question, "What kind of Army will we need in 2025 and beyond?"


Published: May 2014

The Collins Center Update is a quarterly newsletter detailing the activities of the Center for Strategic Leadership and Development, United States Army War College. Articles in this double issue include: ?CSLD Hosts Inaugural Senior Leaders Seminar Phase II Pilot Course?, ?Wargame Considers Policy Options for Afghanistan beyond 2014?, ?Wargame Examines Ways to Assist Iraq in Becoming Secure, Stable, and Self Reliant?, ?Combined/Joint Force Land Component Commander (C/JFLCC) Course 2-14?, ?Senior Leader Staff Ride Program Concludes Another Successful Year?, and ?International Strategic Crisis Negotiation Exercise Program Continues to Expand and Adapt.?


Author: Dr Richard L Winslow

Published: January 2014

The Afghanistan Futures Wargame conducted 14-15 January 2014 brought together specialists with expertise on Afghanistan, China, India, Iran and Pakistan, international relations and national security affairs from academia, government and private think-tanks to consider U.S. policy options for Afghanistan beyond 2014. The overarching finding of this wargame is that, except for the issues associated with ungoverned space, the United States has relatively few national interests in Afghanistan going forward. U.S. national interests in Pakistan are greater than those in Afghanistan, and are centered on non-use, nonproliferation and security of Pakistan's nuclear arsenal, combined with concern over internal stability and the presence of Violent Extremist Organizations (VEOs). Future U.S. policy toward Afghanistan should be adjusted to match these interests, should seek opportunities for cooperation where the interests of other stakeholders converge with U.S. interests and should be part of a broader regional, less military-centric policy.


Author: Ms Cindy E Ayers, Kenneth D Chrosniak

Published: November 2013

The extended loss of electric power is our nation?s most glaring national security weakness. Energy is an overarching component that comprises the strength and vitality of America ? it is the blood within the circulatory system that allows everything to run. If energy is drained from the system, then the rest of the structure will buckle and break down. However, concerns about a power grid breakdown are seldom discussed by citizens or the media; nor are they planned for by those involved in energy production and protection. There is no doubt that this threat places the sovereignty of our nation in jeopardy.


Published: August 2013

The Collins Center Update is a quarterly newsletter detailing the activities of the Center for Strategic Leadership and Development, The United States Army War College. Articles in this issue include: Senior Leaders Seminar 13-02, Combined/Joint Force Land Component Commander (C/JFLCC) Course 3-13, Transnational Organized Crime Exercise Examines U.S. Government Response, Unified Quest 2013 - Deep Futures Wargame and Partnerships Enhance the International Strategic Crisis Negotiation Exercise Program.


Published: July 2013

The Collins Center Update is a quarterly newsletter detailing the activities of the Center for Strategic Leadership and Development, The United States Army War College. Articles in this issue include: Partnership Initiatives Help Meet Senior Leader Needs, USAWC Hosts Strategic and International Analytical Exchanges at Collins Hall, Burkina Faso Military Strategy Review Phase II, Joint Land, Air and Sea Strategic Exercise (JLASS-EX) 2013, and Combined/Joint Land Component Commander (C/JFLCC) Course 2-13.


Published: June 2013

In The Common Defense is a journal of strategic thought focused on issues related to homeland defense and homeland security. Drawing on research that has been conducted at the United States Army War College, the journal features studies on various topics related to defending and securing the homeland, including: Counterterrorism; Defense Support of Civil Authorities (DSCA); Cyber Security; Transnational Criminal Threats; Consequence Management; Infrastructure Protection; and Border Security. The goal of In The Common Defense is to share these research findings and encourage strategic level discussions of current and emerging issues surrounding domestic security in the United States. In the process, the U.S. Army War College seeks to contribute to, and encourage these vital examinations, across the Army, the Federal Interagency, academia, and the rest of the homeland security enterprise.


Published: May 2013

The Collins Center Update is a quarterly newsletter detailing the activities of the Center for Strategic Leadership and Development, The United States Army War College. Articles in this double issue include: Senior Leader Seminar 13-01, The Basic Strategic Art Program, New Wargame Series, New Series Examines Regional Hot Spots in the First Three Wargames, Northeast Asia Wargame Examines Strategic Context of WMD Threat , Cyber Wargame Examines Policy and Strategic Issues, Constructing Strategies in the Midst of Crises: USAWC Assists Niger in its National Military Review, Preserving and Protecting the Cures: Examining the Specter of Antimicrobial Drug Resistance, Unified Quest 2013 Winter Wargame, International Fellows Experience the Complexities of International Diplomacy, CSLD Continues to Increase and Strengthen Partnerships through the ISCNE, and CSLD Partnership with the LBJ School of Public Affairs, University of Texas.


Published: November 2012

The Collins Center Update is a quarterly newsletter detailing the activities of the Center for Strategic Leadership and Development, The United States Army War College. Articles in this issue include: " CSLD – Expanded Name Reflects Expanded Mission Set " , " Senior Leader Seminar 12-02", "Strategic Leader Staff Ride Program 2012", "Initiation of ‘Quick-Turn’ Wargame Concept", "Combating Terrorism Seminar at the Romanian National Defense University" , "Military Strategy Review: Building Capacity in the Armed Forces of Niger ", and "Mill-to-Mil Activities with the Polish Land Forces: Joint Fires Symposium."


Published: July 2012

The Collins Center Update is a quarterly newsletter detailing the activities of the Center for Strategic Leadership, U.S. Army War College. Articles in this issue include: “Countering Violent Extremism in East Africa”, “Strategic Leader Education Outreach and Engagement: Iraqi War College and USAWC Partnership”, “4th Annual Conference on Cyber Conflict (CyCon 2012)”, and “Cyber Ricochet: Risk Management and Cyberspace Operations.”


Author: Mr Benjamin C Leitzel

Published: July 2012

What do the names Duqu, Flame and Stuxnet have in common – they are all malware programs deliberately built to exploit the vulnerabilities of computer networks and systems. Such cyberspace operations can produce effects that can accomplish national objectives with the promise of limited risk. However, these ‘cyber bullets’ are prone to ricochet and it is difficult to predict their spread which may propagate the uncontrolled use or reengineering by unfriendly actors, thus creating the real possibility of a ‘cyber ricochet,’ which could strike friendly networks and systems that could not only adversely affect military capabilities and operations, but also place a nation’s critical infrastructure and key resources at risk.


Author: Christopher M Best

Published: June 2012

Few substances on Earth are as important to human survival as water, with access to clean fresh water essential to the growth of industry, agriculture, and particularly to human population centers. This paper focuses on AFRICOM’s role in preserving U.S. interests in Africa by fostering water security through a discussion of major water challenges facing Africa in the near future, the relationship between water security and U.S. national security interests, and AFRICOM’s role in water security. Water security will become an increasingly important issue as the global population increases and access to water becomes more limited, and AFRICOM has the opportunity to play a crucial role in African water security given its resources and military connection to various water stressed African states.


Published: May 2012

The U.S. Army War College is pleased to present this anthology of selected student work from Academic Year 2011 representing examples of well-written and in-depth analyses on the vital subject of Information as Power. This is the sixth volume of an effort that began in 2006. The anthology is an important component of an effort to coordinate and recommend the design, development and integration of content and courses related to the information element of power into the curriculum to prepare our students for senior leadership positions. Broken into sections emphasizing information effects in the cyberspace domain and the cognitive dimension as well as information sharing, the anthology provides a holistic overview of important national security issues in that regard.


Published: April 2012

The Collins Center Update is quarterly newsletter detailing the activities of the Center for Strategic Leadership, U.S. Army War College. Articles in this issue include: "Strategic Decision Making Exercise (SDME) 2012", "The Romanian Armed Forces and Joint Staff Planning", "The Senior Leader Seminar (SLS): Senior Leader Development Course 12-1", and "Teaching Strategy at the Baltic Defense College."


Published: April 2012

The Homeland Defense and Security Issues Group of the United States Army War College’s Center for Strategic Leadership is proud to present the initial volume of the In Support of the Common Defense Journal. This journal consists of selected student works taken from the classes of 2010 and 2011. The themes addressed by these papers follow the headlines of America’s security concerns - the southwest border of the United States, safeguarding “cyberspace,” and a dedicated assessment of the terrorist threat and its immediacy to our people. Beyond that they also address less intuitive issues, such as the appropriate relationship between military and civil agencies over a range of domestic situations, and within the military itself between military components within the context of envisioned civil-military response. In some cases, our contributors have reached beyond singular military application to examine existing strategies and evolving conditions surrounding emergency management and other aspects of homeland security. In all cases what this initial volume contains is a disciplined brand of strategic thinking against issues of import to the defense and security of the homeland.


Published: March 2012

The Collins Center Update is a quarterly newsletter detailing the activities of the Center for Strategic Leadership, U.S. Army War College. Articles in this issue include: "The Strategic Leader Staff Ride Program: A Timely, Relevant and Valuable Program for Our Army", "Information Operations Primer Released", "Cyber Futures Workshop", "CSL Partners with Top Universities to Educate Future National Security Professionals", and "The Hybrid Threat: Crime, terrorism and Insurgency in Mexico."


Author: Mister James Hartman

Published: January 2012

Military forces must have the land, air, water, and energy/fuel to train and operate today, and into the future. In a world that has finite resources and is increasingly experiencing high competition for these resources, how can these resources be assured, how can conflict over scarce resources be avoided and when can cooperation over resources issues be used to promote peace? This research report addresses how security organizations throughout the world are, or could be, approaching sustainability.


Author: Sharon L Cardash, Frank J Cilluffo, Prof Bert B Tussing

Published: October 2011

On October 21st, 2011, the U.S. Army War College Center for Strategic Leadership and the George Washington University Homeland Security Policy Institute (HSPI) released an issue brief on Mexico and the triple challenge of crime, terrorist tactics, and narco-insurgency. Reviewing the extent of the triple threat and efforts to respond to it, both individually and jointly on the part of the Government of Mexico and the United States Government, co-authors Sharon L. Cardash, Frank J. Cilluffo, and Bert B. Tussing write: "The question remains...whether strategy and doctrine in Mexico, in the United States, and in the region can and will keep pace with the triple threat...that is at once adaptive, lethal, and determined." Noting the "complex multidimensional" nature of the challenge, and acknowledging that "facts on the ground will continue to mutate," the authors conclude: "In addition to...careful, patient work that supports operations, we must also do the hard strategic thinking to further develop a comprehensive (multi-dimensional, multi-instrument) plan to work with Mexico to help create and reinforce the institutional and social foundations and developments needed to achieve strategic success in the long run. This undertaking will be especially challenging at a time of domestic and international economic turbulence and restraint. Granted, policy without resources is rhetoric – but we must also try to work smarter and better.


Author: COL Robert D Bradford III

Published: October 2011

The financial crisis of 2008 shocked markets and led to a global recession. Failure of the financial markets caused economies to shrink resulting in hardship and loss around the world. In our modern connected world, few nations escaped the consequences of the crisis. This huge financial crisis diminished the economic strength of our nation, with significant implications for our national defense and impacts for our national security.


Author: LTC Troy D Galloway

Published: October 2011

China's embrace of globalization in a measured manner is a direct result of the communist nation’s reliance on five-year national development plans to guide its growth and economic reform. This gradualist approach has worked well in moving the economy towards reform while avoiding significant risk. This paper discusses the linkages that exist between the significant Chinese economic success of the last 30 years and the communist five-year plans that have outlined many of the nation’s economic reforms.


Author: LTC Mark W Holzer

Published: October 2011

The discussion of how best to deprive terrorist organizations of funding is necessarily broad because of the numerous means people have devised to acquire and move funds for whatever purpose they intend. How seriously the United States takes this issue can be seen just in the number of statutory provisions that have been adopted and diligence with which we update terror-associated lists that are aimed at depriving terrorists of funds. However, the National Security Strategy's treatment of this topic is very broad and it is discussed only within fairly limited contexts. This may simply be a realistic assessment of the difficulties we face in trying to dry up terrorist funding streams and the challenges of evaluating our efforts in spite of the fairly broad approach that has been undertaken in the past decade.


Author: COL Vance F Stewart III

Published: October 2011

Brazil, a large and populous country, is blessed with an abundance of natural resources and long-standing ties and traditions to Europe; it is seen as a leader among the nations of the South American continent. Brazil's ascendancy into the world’s diplomatic and economic leadership circles has been fueled by an amazing ten year span of economic growth, backed by sound government budgeting and responsible social programs to improve its citizens' quality of life. However, the question remains, is Brazil actually ready to be a world economic leader? In order to answer the question, this paper reviews Brazil's growth over the past ten years, examines relevant economic indicators, and analyzes problem areas that may inhibit or derail future, sustainable progress.


Author: COL James K Rose

Published: October 2011

In today's increasing globalized world there are several rapidly emerging market success stories that many economic and financial analysts are watching with great anticipation. Brazil is one of these of these geo-political risers and it is perhaps the most underestimated of the so-called BRIC countries - Brazil, Russia, India and China. The story behind Brazil's economic growth is a remarkable tale and has multiple strategic implications for the United States as the two countries struggle to define their future bilateral relationship. The question of what Brazil's rise means for the United States and what are the security implications for the hemisphere are significant.


Author: Nathaniel Freeland

Published: October 2011

Fuel powers the industrial production that strengthens the economy and provides the means to project national power. Reliable sources of energy are imperative to the security of the United States. Energy security is the primary theme in discussing why increased domestic production of fuel is important in both geopolitical and international relations theory. The energy market within the scope of twenty-first-century globalization is increasingly affected by global interdependence. One only has to look back to 2009 when Russia cut off gas to Ukraine to note how potentially detrimental globalization of fuel supply is to a nation's energy security.


Published: October 2011

The Collins Center Update is a quarterly newsletter detailing the activities of the Center for Strategic Leadership, U.S. Army War College. Articles in this issue include: "The Senior Leader Seminar Course", "Army Service Intelligence Agency Supports USAWC Objectives", "Visit of the Ukrainian General Staff Delegation", "Water Security and the Okavango", "CSL Support to Geographic Combatant Commands", "Communicating Complexity: Creating Policy for Mitigating and Controlling Persistent Infectious Disease" , and "Deep Gas or Water? Or Both?"


Author: Mr Brent C Bankus

Published: October 2011

The continent of Africa is important to U.S. national security interests, and on that continent regional security increasingly turns on human security. Long known for its influence over critical choke points and sea lines of communication, Africa is increasingly known as a land of vast stretches of under-governed spaces, burgeoning terrorist groups, world-class deposits of strategic minerals and petroleum, and the continent most affected by climate change. It is also known for high population growth rates and troubled governments struggling to maintain legitimacy. Many of the challenges originate with environmental change and a resource base eroded by high population growth rates, bad governmental policy, and environmental degradation. But, in resource rich Southern Africa, the regional country of Botswana is considered a success story. With fewer natural resources and a landlocked country, Botswana has historically been known as a champion of the environment and has been steadily making progress towards economic independence chiefly through sound fiscal decisions, diversifying its economy and attacking government corruption.


Author: COL Douglas Charney, COL Philip D Jones, COL Cheryl A Ludwa, Mr Todd M Wheeler

Published: October 2011

The United States Pacific Command (USPACOM) enlisted the Center for Strategic Leadership's National Security Issues Group to develop a conference to discuss regional environmental security issues. The Pacific Environmental Security Conference (PESC) was held on March 14-17, 2011, just four days following Japan's devastating earthquake and tsunami. This international event set the tone for the importance of the conference and exemplified the value of international, civil-military cooperation in all phases of disaster management. The conference focused on four broad topic areas: Environmental Security and Sustainability, Water Resources Management, Adaptation to Climate Change, and Disaster Preparedness. The primary aim of the conference was to review the major environmental security issues facing the region and engage in a policy-oriented dialogue that examined joint civil-military environmental security efforts.


Published: July 2011

The Collins Center Update is a quarterly newsletter detailing the activities of the Center for Strategic Leadership, U.S. Army War College. Articles in this issue include: "Assessing the Strategic Environment: The Ethiopian Defense Command and Staff College", "JLASS-EX: 29 Years in the Evolution of a Unique, Adjudicated Wargame", "The 2011 Strategic Leadership Staff Ride Program", and "Cyberspace Education."


Author: Mr Brent C Bankus, Dr Kent H Butts, LT Adam Norris

Published: July 2011

The vitality of a powerful nation depends upon its ability to secure access to the strategic resources necessary to sustain its economy and produce effective weapons for defense. This is especially true for the world's two largest economies, those of the United States and China, both similarly import dependent for large quantities of their strategic minerals. Because China's economy and resource import dependence continue to grow at a high rate it has adopted a geopolitical strategy to secure strategic resources. China's resulting role in the mineral trade has increased Western security community concern over strategic minerals to its highest point since the end of the Cold War.


Author: Prof Bernard F Griffard

Published: July 2011

A government's failure to understand the impact of global variables on the domestic environment can result in major destabilizing events. As military officers progress in rank and responsibility, their perspectives must evolve. It is in a nation's self-interest to ensure its senior military leaders recognize the role that global trends and variables, and the strategic challenges they present, play in the development of a national security framework. These topics are usually addressed in a nation's senior military institute, as is the case in the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia at the Ethiopian Defense Command and Staff College (EDCSC). It was established with USAFRICOM and Army War College support in 2006, and that support continues today.


Author: Mr Brent C Bankus, Ms Lorelei E W Coplen, Prof James O Kievit

Published: June 2011

Following the U.S. military's successes in Iraq and Afghanistan it quickly became clear that the new governments of these two nations lacked many of the essential capabilities required to actually implement good governance. Initially, despite the preference of the military officers on the ground to have some other entity be responsible for governance, that responsibility fell largely, if not exclusively, on U.S. military commanders. In order to assist selected future senior leaders to be better prepared for such responsibilities, the U.S. Army War College began offering an elective course entitled "U.S. Military Governance Operations, A Historical Perspective." This issue paper briefly outlines the scope of that course and provides reflections regarding military governance developed by the students who participated.


Author: Mr Samuel R White Jr

Published: June 2011

The 2010 National Security Strategy marked a change in emphasis in United States foreign policy direction after more than a decade of continuous military engagement in Afghanistan and Iraq. While a strong and capable military is still the cornerstone of U.S. national security, this broad and holistic approach to international relationships involves a whole-of-government mindset. In addressing this concept, the Center for Strategic Leadership partners with universities from around the country to educate and develop future diplomats who will be part of this vanguard. A highlight of these important partnerships is the International Strategic Crisis Negotiation Exercise. But CSL also offers other experiential learning and education possibilities for both graduate-level international relations students as well as current Foreign Service professionals. Through interaction, the War College builds long-term partnerships with like-minded institutions - institutions which share the same educational, enrichment and outreach objectives and who focus on developing strategic leaders and decision makers.


Author: Mr Kevin J Cogan

Published: May 2011

The preservation of the electric grid is central to the defense of the United States. To assess the state of preparedness of the nation in the event of the loss of critical infrastructure, especially the electrical and communications infrastructure, the Center of Strategic Leadership at the U.S. Army War College conducted a three day workshop which assembled a body of subject matter experts, civic leaders, and electric industry providers to create awareness, discuss threat postures, and recommend actions to better prepare for the possibility of a critical infrastructure failure or collapse of the electrical grid and associated electronic devices due to either a solar storm, electromagnetic pulse (EMP), or a cyber attack.


Published: April 2011

The Collins Center Update is a quarterly newsletter detailing the activities of the Center for Strategic Leadership, U.S. Army War College. Articles in this issue include: "Strategic Decision Making Exercise 2011", "AY11 SDME Bilat Negotiations", "2011 Pacific Environmental Security Conference", "Environmental Security" and "Building Joint Staff and Interagency Cooperation in Montenegro."


Author: Prof Bert B Tussing

Published: March 2011

The Consortium for Homeland Defense and Security in America - consisting of the United States Army War College's Center for Strategic Leadership (CSL); George Washington University's Homeland Security Policy Institute (HSPI); the Center for Strategic and International Studies (CSIS); and the Heritage Foundation - held its annual symposium to examine pressing issues of shared concern to the domestic security of the United States and its allies. This year's event was constructed around the challenges of achieving Unity of Effort in preparing for and responding to catastrophic events.


Author: Dr Kent H Butts, Ms Marcela Ramirez

Published: March 2011

Today, with its impact on water and food security and governmental legitimacy, climate change adaptation has emerged as a leading regional security issue and major concern to regional governments and their populations. The DOS Regional Environmental Office (Hub) and the Command Engineer Office of the U.S. Southern Command (USSOUTHCOM) have a decade old partnership in promoting regional environmental security cooperation and have been supported closely by the U.S. Army War College Center for Strategic Leadership (CSL). This team has taken the lead in addressing the security dimensions of climate change adaptation in the Central America and Caribbean Region.


Author: Ms Marcela Ramirez

Published: March 2011

The principles of environmental stewardship and sustainability support environmental protection. Environmental protection is the application of human ingenuity and resources, through the disciplines of science and engineering, as required by environmental protection laws, regulations, and policies, to protect the natural environment. The United States Southern Command (USSOUTHCOM) Command Strategy for 2016 provides a vision of a more joint interagency organization by collaborating with other USG agencies such as USAID and the U.S. Department of Agriculture in addition to NGOs/IOs and partner nations to ensure security, enhance stability and enable prosperity in the Americas. In the last decade USSOUTHCOM Command Engineers have promoted environmental engineering issues in their AOR in a collaborative way and have added the dimensions of human attitudes and values to the technical environmental protection process. To that end USSOUTHCOM Command Engineers have organized a series of regional Military Engineering and Environment Conferences in the region. The objectives of these conferences include supporting host nations in building institutional capacities; increase sustainability and resilience of partner nations to natural disasters; identifying cooperative civil-military venues and provide recommendations on military engineering and environmental challenges facing the AOR, in addition to creating strategic alliances throughout the region.


Author: Dr Kent H Butts, Ms Marcela Ramirez

Published: March 2011

The economic vitality of the South American region is threatened by the effects of climate change. Climate change often exacerbates existing environmental crises such as drought, water scarcity and soil degradation, intensify land use conflicts (especially in the Andean and Amazon Regions) and trigger environmentally induced migration. Glaciers are retreating and natural disasters such as floods and earthquakes are becoming more frequent and severe, exacting a heavy toll on the population and the economic infrastructure of the region. Successful adaptation measures may require multilateral cooperation to preempt these destabilizing affects before they impact on government legitimacy and threaten regional security. While civilian agencies will normally be the lead for proactively addressing climate change adaptation, they may be insufficient, or absent in distant frontier and border areas where only the military is present. In efforts to address these regional concerns, the U.S. Southern Command co-hosted two climate change-related events in South America. The first one in Colombia was focused on climate change adaptation, and the second in Peru, was focused on low carbon sustainable economies, both events emphasizing civil-military collaboration on the issues.


Author: Prof Bernard F Griffard, Dr R Craig Nation

Published: March 2011

As Montenegro approaches its fifth anniversary of independence, the nation is actively pursuing membership in both the NATO and the EU, and looks to become a useful, contributing partner in both organizations. As part of that effort, over the past three years the U.S. Army War College's traveling contact teams have assisted the Armed Forces of Montenegro in the areas of joint staff structure, strategic planning processes, and national strategy reviews. As they strengthened their internal processes, the Montenegrin Ministry of Defense and the Armed Forces General Staff have come to recognize the key role that interagency cooperation plays in the execution of national policy and in the response to natural and manmade disasters.


Published: February 2011

The Collins Center Update is a quarterly newsletter detailing the activities of the Center for Strategic Leadership, U.S. Army War College. Articles in this issue include: "CSL Hosts Major Homeland Defense & Security Conference", "USAWC and University of Kentucky Educate Tomorrow's Diplomats", "Army Sustainability and Environmental Security Roundtable", "Strategic Leadership in the Serbian Military" and "Increased Concerns about Strategic Resource Imports."


Published: January 2011

The Information in Warfare Working Group (I2WG) of the U.S. Army War College (USAWC) is pleased to present this anthology of selected student work from Academic Year 2010 representing examples of well-written and in-depth analyses on the vital subject of Information as Power. We hope that this effort will serve to inform the broader body of knowledge as the Nation strives to operate effectively within the global information environment and to counter current and potentially future adversaries who exploit it.


Author: Prof Bernard F Griffard, Prof James W Shufelt Jr

Published: January 2011

Today, in the States of the former Yugoslavia, national security teams are wrestling with the challenges of parallel political and military transformations. As a group, these countries have opted to align their futures with the West and the European Community. Whether NATO members, candidate members, or Partnership for Peace (PfP) participants, they are actively seeking assistance with strategic planning and professional military education.


Author: Dr Craig Bullis, LTC Vince Lindenmeyer

Published: November 2010

The Moldovan Military Institute (MMI) is in its second year of a three year action plan to completely revise its professional military education (PME) curriculum. In less than a year the MMI will begin its new curriculum for cadets to complete a four-year bachelor's degree program in public administration. To prepare the faculty members in developing the curriculum, the MMI is hosting a series of lectures from subject matter experts to assist in curriculum preparation. To that end, the MMI invited Dr. Craig Bullis, Department of Command, Leadership and Management (DCLM), U.S. Army War College (USAWC), and LTC Vince Lindenmeyer, Center for Strategic Leadership, USAWC, to the second event of this lecture series, titled Leadership and Ethics.


Author: COL Michael S Chesney, Prof Bernard F Griffard, Lt Col Gregory D Hillebrand

Published: October 2010

By the very nature of their missions, the world’s militaries spend much of their time developing plans that address identified risks, only to find themselves reacting to security threats from an unanticipated sector, or to manmade and natural disasters. The ability to “turn on a dime” is based in a creditable crisis action planning (CAP) process designed to support the military commander’s efforts to develop, analyze, select and implement a course of action (COA) within a constrained timeframe. It was with this focus that the Serbian Armed Forces (SAF) requested that the Commander, U.S. European Command (USEUCOM) provide a Traveling Contact Team (TCT) to conduct a workshop on this topic.


Author: Ms Marcela Ramirez

Published: October 2010

Threats to state and human security result from, political and military, and gangs but also social, economic and environmental issues. These and an ever widening array of factors, from the proliferation of small arms and drugs trafficking, to transnational threats like water pollution, natural disasters, the spread of diseases and climate change, all contribute to actual and perceived insecurity. Responding to issues of regional security, the United States Southern Command (SOUTHCOM) Command Engineer office and the DOS Regional Environmental Hub for Central America and the Caribbean co-sponsored a Roundtable on Environmental Security and Natural Disasters in San Jose, Costa Rica.


Author: Arthur L Bradshaw, Ms Marcela Ramirez

Published: August 2010

Building trust and cooperation between the military and civilian sectors of the nations of South America is an essential step in the continuation of their progress as democracies. As part of its continuing efforts to assist in this endeavor, the United States Army Southern Command Engineers co-sponsored "The International Conference of Military Engineers and the Environment" in Santiago, Chile.


Published: July 2010

The Collins Center Update is a quarterly newsletter detailing the activities of the Center for Strategic Leadership, U.S. Army War College. Articles in this issue include: "Supporting Professional Military Education in the Horn of Africa: Ethiopean Defense Command and Staff College", "“Serbian Armed Forces Transformation: Human Resource Management Processes", "InfowarCon 2010", "Robotics Day 2010" and "Learning and Entertainment Forum (LEEF) 2010."


Author: LTC Vince Lindenmeyer, Dr Marybeth P Ulrich

Published: May 2010

The Moldovan Military Institute (MMI) has a bold vision to become the premiere military training and academic institute for all levels of development for the Moldovan Armed Forces (MAF). The MMI is responsible for the professional development of all MAF officers and non-commissioned officers. This past February, the United States Army War College (USAWC) conducted an assistance visit to help facilitate the continued development of the MMI's model for a professional development curriculum.


Author: Prof Bernard F Griffard

Published: May 2010

Within the Balkan region there is a shared desire for integration into the European Community. A prerequisite for such integration is the modernization of the national security apparatus. For this reason, Serbia has a certain urgency to transform its national military organization. The Serbian Armed Forces (SAF) is tapping into both European and U.S. expertise for ideas on creating an effective and efficient Serbian Human Resource Management (HRM) system that supports its national security goals, achieves modern standards, and exhibits real capabilities.


Published: March 2010

The Collins Center Update is a quarterly newsletter detailing the activities of the Center for Strategic Leadership, U.S. Army War College. Articles in this issue include: "Strategic Decision Making Exercise 2010", "Montenegro: Strategic Defense Review", "War is War: Cyberspace Operations in the Contemporary Operational Environment", "The Complexity of International Diplomacy" and "Strategic Force Planning and Development in the Armed Forces of Bosnia and Herzegovina."


Author: Dennis M Murphy

Published: March 2010

How does cyberspace impact the military operational environment?


Published: March 2010

The Information in Warfare Working Group (I2WG) of the U.S. Army War College (USAWC) is pleased to present this anthology of selected student work from Academic Year 2009 representing examples of well-written and in-depth analyses on the vital subject of Information as Power. We hope that this effort will serve to inform the broader body of knowledge as the Nation strives to operate effectively within the global information environment and to counter current and potentially future adversaries who exploit it.


Published: February 2010

The Collins Center Update is a quarterly newsletter detailing the activities of the Center for Strategic Leadership, U.S. Army War College. Articles in this issue include: "Strategic Crisis Negotiation Exercise - Georgetown University", "Bullets and Blogs: New Media and the Warfighter", "SIMULEX 2009", and "Reserve Component Futures Forum: The Role of the Reserves in 2020 and Beyond."


Author: COL Laurel J Hummel, Amy Richmond Krakowka

Published: November 2009

Africa is a very large continent, one with 53 independent states fraught with a troubled and complex historical geography. While most Americans have a general sense that modern Africa is beset with difficulty, there is little real understanding of Africa. It seems that one of the reasons Americans don’t consider Africa much is that frankly what little we know tends to make us uncomfortable and confused. The editors of this book hope to help turn attention towards this continent, one with an enormous amount of environmental value and human potential even though it is beset with serious problems which, if not solved, will continue to seriously degrade both. They offer it as the fruit of the geographer’s art, one that seeks to know both the physical and human characteristics of places, and how those characteristics intertwine and interact to make a place the way it is, and different from other places.


Author: Prof Bernard F Griffard, Prof Bert B Tussing

Published: November 2009

With the world's population in almost constant motion, migration is an everyday reality. According to the United Nations, the global number of migrants more than doubled in recent years offering both opportunities and complications for governments. However, the absence of integrated border management procedures leaves the door open to trafficking in human beings, transnational narco-crime, smuggling, and terrorism, all of which pose direct threats to government stability. Resolving this problem is both resource intensive and politically sensitive. To examine at this issue in detail the Migration Policy Institute (MPI) sponsored a roundtable to discuss Assisting Developing Countries in Securing Human Mobility.


Published: November 2009

The Collins Center Update is a quarterly newsletter detailing the activities of the Center for Strategic Leadership, U.S. Army War College. Articles in this issue include: "Economic Impacts of Defense Strategy Development: Ethiopian Defense Command and Staff College", "Preparing for NATO Missions: Integrated Force Planning in the Albanian Armed Forces", "Welcome to the Information as Power Blog", and "Closing the Seams: Total Force Solutions for Defense Support to Civil Authorities."


Author: Diedre Collings, Rafal Rohozinski

Published: October 2009

In recent years, adversaries, armed with new media capabilities and an information-led warfighting strategy, have proven themselves capable of challenging the most powerful militaries in the world. Twitter, YouTube, Facebook and blogs have arguably become as important to the strategic outcome of military operations as bullets, troops and air power.


Author: Mr Brent C Bankus, Jason Delosua

Published: September 2009

Human Security and its seven tenets, Economic Security, Food Security, Health Security, Environmental Security, Personal Security, Community Security and Political Security have added a new dimension to the national security paradigm. For a majority of Americans and western Europeans, sufficient food is readily accessible and its cost is a relatively small percentage of their annual income. This, however, is not the case for almost a billion people around the world, including large numbers in the strategically important states of Egypt, India, China, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Indonesia, Pakistan and Ethiopia. In these countries, and in others, food insecurity has been or is a contributor to regional or domestic instability.


Author: Dennis M Murphy

Published: September 2009

While massive amounts of information can provide the opportunity to broaden and expand thought, it also can, and does, overwhelm people already constrained by time as they juggle the daily requirements of life.


Author: COL George P McDonnell

Published: August 2009

The likelihood that the United States, alone or as part of a coalition, will undertake stability operations in fragile of failed states remains as high today as it did a decade ago. If true, then the U.S. Army's participation in Provincial Reconstruction Teams (PRTs) will be a critical part of a successful strategy. Unfortunately, the Army's current doctrine on PRTs contains ambiguity and omissions that detract from its effectiveness. As the body of knowledge on this subject expands future revisions to FM 3-07, Stability Operations, need to overcome current shortcomings.


Author: COL Hugh C Van Roosen II

Published: August 2009

A comparison of the 1943 United States Army and Navy Manual of Military Government and Civil Affairs with the latest version of the United States Army Civil Affairs Field Manual, published in 2006, reveals major changes in doctrine in the intervening sixty three years. While to some degree changing national and international conditions make many of those changes understandable, an argument can be made for the need to recapture the 'military government' essentials found in the 1943 document.


Author: Prof Bernard F Griffard, Dr R Craig Nation, Prof James W Shufelt Jr

Published: August 2009

Albania became a full member of NATO on April 1, 2009. As affirmed by the NATO Secretary General, NATO membership not only brings benefits, but also responsibilities, one of which is the provision of forces capable of operating effectively within an Alliance command structure. This means that the Albanian Armed Forces (AAF) must complete their transition to NATO standards of manning, equipping, and resourcing the AAF. In support of this effort, and under the auspices of the U.S. European Command Joint Contact Team Program, the U.S. Army War College sent a three person team to Tirana, Albania to conduct a workshop on integrated force planning concepts and procedures.


Author: Prof Bernard F Griffard, Prof John F Troxell

Published: August 2009

United States Africa Command (USAFRICOM) is keenly aware that for small or emerging nations military modernization initiatives have domestic, regional, and international impacts on a nation's public, trade, finance, aid, and foreign policies. One of USAFRICOM's essential missions is to increase the ability of African nations to improve their own security, thus enhancing stability. One of AFRICOM's security engagement tools is sustained military to military (mil-to-mil) programs. The ongoing U.S. Army Central (USARCENT) effort to assist in establishing the Ethiopian Defense Command and Staff College (EDCSC) serves as an excellent example of USARCENT's ongoing engagement.


Published: July 2009

The Collins Center Update is a quarterly newsletter detailing the activities of the Center for Strategic Leadership, U.S. Army War College. Articles in this issue include: "Unified Quest 2009", "Talking the Talk: Why Warfighters Don't Understand Information Operations", "U.S. Army Central 2009 Land Forces Symposium", "Allied Rapid Reaction Corps Public Affairs Symposium", "The Militarization of the Collective Security Treaty Organization", and "Presentations on Command and Control."


Author: Arthur L Bradshaw

Published: July 2009

Since the United States and Mongolia established diplomatic relations in 1987, a strong, dynamic and growing cooperative partnership has developed, one based on shared values and a commitment to democracy. One of the most successful cooperative exchanges between the two countries occurred recently with the execution of a bilateral disaster response training program, a progressive, multi-phased, joint training project that spanned the early months of 2009.


Author: COL John A Mowchan

Published: July 2009

There is mounting evidence that one of the long-term effects of Russia's incursion into the neighboring state of Georgia last year is taking shape in Moscow's recent reenergized efforts to transform the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) into to a more cohesive militarized security alliance. While still in the preliminary phase of development, Moscow's initiative most likely has a two-fold purpose: to help increase collective security within Eurasia, and to counter and ultimately limit U.S. and Western influence in Eurasian region, which the Kremlin still considers to be within its backyard, or more precisely part of its "Near Abroad."


Author: LTC Artur M Loureiro

Published: July 2009

The United States Army War College's Center for Strategic Leadership in conjunction with the George H. W. Bush School of Government at Texas A&M University conducted an important event entitled Strategic Vision Workshop: Land Power in the 21st Century, held in February 2009. This workshop was a continuation of previous workshops that involved the Kennedy School of Government at Harvard University, the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy at Tufts University, and the Security Studies Program at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. The specific purpose of this workshop was to assist the Army Staff in analyzing strategic choices and the impact these choices have on the development of a future National Grand Strategy by taking an in-depth look at the various strategic choices that the United States must face in the future development and employment of land power.


Author: Mr Brent C Bankus, Ms Marcela Ramirez

Published: July 2009

Within USSOUTHCOM's current strategy the U.S. military seeks to build partnerships with other government agencies that also operate in the region. This includes establishing public-private partnerships to tackle the issues affecting national and regional security issues such as food security. As part of this strategy USSOUTHCOM recently held an Interagency meeting on food security. It was a collaborative interagency effort that brought together participants from a variety of national and international organizations in addition to the Department of Defense. Participants included members from the Department of State, U.S. Agency for International Development, the U.S. Department of Agriculture, the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, and World Vision.


Author: Mr Kevin J Cogan, Mister William O Waddell

Published: July 2009

Military operations, capabilities, and the speed of events have been changing with great intensity for the last decade. With this rapid change in military capabilities, a new way of considering the command and control (C2) of units and systems in order to effectively meet the opponent and have an advantage in the conflict is needed. The old ways of conducting business and being constrained semantically have no place in current and future warfare and will negatively influence the potential of success. The analogy of organic chemistry seems to be an excellent fit for the concepts of organizational configuration, especially when agility is required to meet emerging operational concepts. The ability to focus the organization towards the objective and to enable all essential elements of power to converge on the opponent with agility will be the "New Chemistry" of C2.


Author: Dr Kent H Butts

Published: June 2009

Explore China's developing interest in African stability and long-term access to African resources. The expense and extent of Chinese efforts to garner natural resources in various African locales seems to indicate an intent not to compete on the open market for resources, but rather to own them and their associated infrastructure outright so as to create a secure source of supply. Bankus and Butts examine China's efforts in Africa through the lens of the three variables that have characterized U.S. national security strategy: diplomacy, development, and defense.


Author: Dennis M Murphy

Published: May 2009

It's time for a doctrinal pause to allow a clean slate review of information operations, strategic communication and, yes, cyberspace operations. Such a review may find that simpler is better.


Published: April 2009

The Collins Center Update is a quarterly newsletter detailing the activities of the Center for Strategic Leadership, U.S. Army War College. Articles in this issue include: "International Fellows Strategic Crisis Negotiation Exercise", "USAFRICOM Component Strategic Communication Course", "The Military and the Private Sector's Partnership in Disaster Response", and "2009 Joint National Emergency Preparedness Liaison Officer Workshop".


Published: February 2009

The Collins Center Update is a quarterly newsletter detailing the activities of the Center for Strategic Leadership, U.S. Army War College. Articles in this issue include: "Strategic Crisis Negotiation Exercises," "MARO Project," "Role Playing Simulation Environment," "Strategic Planning in the Albanian Armed forces," "Cyber Analysis Workshop," and "ARCENT Land Forces Symposium 2009 Concept Development Conference."


Author: COL Daniel G Grey, Prof Bernard F Griffard, Dr R Craig Nation

Published: February 2009

A USAWC faculty team recently led senior leaders of the Albanian Armed Forces through discussions on developing a national security strategy and a national military strategy. Using the War College's strategic model process as a foundation, the combined seminar turned "theory" into "practice." All in support of several U.S. and NATO programs assisting the Albanian Armed Forces' ongoing transformation to a smaller, more effective, well-trained, joint force capable of contributing to future NATO operations.


Author: Dennis M Murphy

Published: January 2009

Cell phones and Internet access have made the military operating environment increasingly transparent. Add to that the expectation of Soldiers to access to social media sites and the complexity of Operations Security dramatically increases, demanding Commander emphasis as never before.


Author: Arthur L Bradshaw, Dr Kent H Butts, Ms Marcela Ramirez

Published: November 2008

The Command Engineer Office, United States Southern Command (USSOUTHCOM), in collaboration with the United States Army War College’s Center for Strategic Leadership, conducted a successful four day "Engineer and Environment Conference" on 2-5 September 2008 in San Jose, Puerto Rico. The conference increased cooperation between United States Government (USG) agencies, the civilian and military leadership of Caribbean states, and the academic community on environmental engineering issues and disaster response activities in the region, and established new relationships for further collaboration.


Author: Dennis M Murphy

Published: November 2008

If the United States military hopes to fight and win in a future information environment dominated by new media it must fully understand both the opportunities and challenges of that environment. This includes the ability to exploit new media to achieve military objectives and defeat an adversary's skilled use of it.


Author: Barton Kunstler

Published: October 2008

The "human singularity" refers to the integration of technology into the human body so that levels of mental acuity and physical ability eclipse all previous known levels. This monograph deals with novel models of leadership and associated skills which will be necessary to deal with a broad front of converging technologies such as nanotechnology, bioengineering, supercomputing, materials development, and robotics that may make these "singularities" commonplace.


Author: Noel Hendrickson

Published: October 2008

Counterfactual reasoning is the process of evaluating conditional claims about alternate possibilities and their consequences. This monograph discusses the need for a comprehensive system of counterfactual reasoning to establish whether underlying assumptions are plausible. Such a system would have immense potential for analytic transformation as it would unite or replace a series of existing techniques of assessing alternate possibilities


Author: Mr Ritchie L Dion, Prof Bernard F Griffard, Prof James W Shufelt Jr

Published: October 2008

Since gaining independence from the former Soviet Union Azerbaijan has worked to develop closer ties with the West and is actively pursuing NATO integration. In support of these efforts the U.S. European Command (USEUCOM) utilized a traveling contact teams (TCT) under the auspices of the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff's (CJCS) Joint Contact Team Program to conduct a TCT seminar in Azerbaijan September 9-11, 2008, that addressed U.S. / NATO Military Organization, Operations & Standardization.


Author: Prof Bert B Tussing

Published: October 2008

The Center for Strategic Leadership hosted the fourth in a series of 12 "Limited Objective Experiment" (LOE) workshops on 23 and 24 September 2008. This workshop series explores the validation and refinement of the Department of Defense's Homeland Defense and Civil Support Joint Operating Concept (HD-CS JOC).


Author: Prof Bernard F Griffard

Published: October 2008

The Center for Strategic Leadership (CSL) has a strategic communication mission to support the Joint Warfighting and Interagency communities in their security cooperation efforts. Over the past 18 months, it has provided seminar traveling contact teams (TCTs) in support of the U.S. European Command's (USEUCOM) military transformation efforts for Albania, Azerbaijan, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Estonia, Macedonia, Moldova, and Montenegro. To better understand the security challenges faced by smaller states this paper looks at recent seminars conducted in Moldova and Montenegro.


Published: October 2008

The Collins Center Update is a quarterly newsletter detailing the activities of the Center for Strategic Leadership, U.S. Army War College. Articles in this issue include: "Strategic Leader Staff Ride Program," "2008 Proteus Futures Academic Workshop," "Modernization and Professionalization of the Montenegro Armed Forces," "Caribbean Engineer Environmental Security Conference," and "Supporting Security Cooperation Efforts in Azerbaijan."


Author: LTC Anthony Abbott

Published: September 2008

Since the 9/11 attacks and Hurricane Katrina the importance of emergency response planning and execution has risen significantly. The goal of any emergency response is to assess, react, and recover from an emergency so that local communities can resume normal activities as quickly and effectively as possible. But how does an organization like a state emergency management agency better prepare itself to accomplish an effective all hazards response? The answer lies at least partially in an effective collective staff training and evaluation program.


Published: July 2008

The Collins Center Update is a quarterly newsletter detailing the activities of the Center for Strategic Leadership, U.S. Army War College. Articles in this issue include: "Strategic Vision Workshop," "Unified Quest 2008," "Network Centric Warfare Presentations," "The 2008 Land Forces Symposium," "Modeling Intangible Factors to Support Strategic Education," and "Albania: Thoughts on a Changing Nation."


Author: Prof Bert B Tussing

Published: July 2008

Congressional mandate and Executive Branch direction have combined to task the military as never before in support of civil authorities in disaster response. Within that military, no organization will have a greater set of responsibilities in coordinating these commitments than a newly empowered National Guard Bureau.


Author: Dennis M Murphy

Published: July 2008

The role of the state's National Guard in domestic crisis response continues to evolve, especially in its relation to the responsibilities of other agencies (both governmental and non-governmental). An assessment of that evolution reveals some important issues and potential solutions.


Author: Mr Scott T Forster, Prof Bert B Tussing

Published: July 2008

Under of its new charter, the National Guard Bureau has been empowered with greater access, greater representation, and greater responsibility. Concurrently, it has inherited a primary role in coordinating the strengths of the Guard with other essential stakeholders in the military's support to civil authorities.


Author: Prof James O Kievit

Published: July 2008

Response to domestic crises is a burden most often borne by active duty armed forces organizations and reserve forces, such as the state's Army and Air National Guards, but there are many other auxiliary forces that can contribute to crisis response. However, current federal law places some significant limitations on the use of these auxiliary forces for Defense Support to Civil Authorities. How to maxmize access to and contributions by all available reserve elements was the focus of Work Group #4.


Author: Prof Bernard F Griffard

Published: May 2008

Over the past 45 years changes in the strategic environment require land forces that are capable of more than just attacking and defending. Within the 21st century environment, shaping the civil situation to accomplish the strategic endstate is just as important as combat success. Transforming a nation's military to face these challenges requires both recognition of the need for change and determination to accomplish that change. With this in mind the 2008 Land Forces Symposium brought together military representatives from 22 countries within the U.S. Central Command region to discuss the Adaptability of Land Forces to 21st Century Security Challenges.


Author: Prof Douglas B Campbell, Prof Philip M Evans, LTC Artur M Loureiro, MG Robert M Williams

Published: May 2008

A definition of Strategy is that it is about the choices a nation makes given a particular strategic environment, and the trends shaping our future strategic environment point toward an era that some have labeled "persistent conflict". Given this premise The United States Army War College (USAWC), in support of the Army Staff and in cooperation with national security faculty and researchers at Harvard, MIT, and Tufts University conducted a series of workshops from 7-10 April 2008 entitled Strategic Vision Workshop: National Grand Strategy. The Workshop explored the various choices available to the United States involving the use of the elements of national power as depicted in the DIME model (Diplomatic, Informational, Military, and Economic).


Author: COL William R Applegate, COL Patrick O Carpenter, Prof Bernard F Griffard

Published: April 2008

On April 2, 2008, NATO offered Albania membership in the Alliance. For a country once described by Prussian Chancellor Otto von Bismarck as no more than a "geographical expression," this was a reward for a long tortuous journey through history. Using the perspective of an eyewitness to the Albania of the late 1990's, this paper identifies the progress made by the Albanian Armed Forces over the past 11 years and why they earned NATO membership.


Published: April 2008

The Collins Center Update is a quarterly newsletter detailing the activitiesof the Center for Strategic Leadership, U.S. Army War College. Articles in this issue include: "StrategicDecision Making Exercise 2008," "New Media and the Warfighter Workshop," "International Fellows Strategic Crisis Negotiation Exercise 2008," "European Interceptor Site Readiness, Activation, Integration and Deployment Event (EIS RAIDE)" and "Robotics Day 2008."


Author: John B Alexander

Published: March 2008

For decades, events in Central and South America have rarely broken through the consciousness of any administration, let alone the American people. Were it not for illegal immigration or drug busts, there would be almost no news from Latin America on mainstream television. Globally, only the unpopulated Antarctic seems to have less coverage. Although information on pending trouble and catastrophe, has been resident inside the intelligence community and there have been individuals shouting warnings, most tragically fell upon is falling on deaf ears. Similarly, today the necessary information about discordant events throughout Latin America is available to the intelligence community and policymakers. The time has passed in ignoring a tinder box ready to ignite and for executing minor, disjointed tactical interventions. Rather, the United States needs a strategic shift in policy if we are to foster harmonious relations with our southern neighbors and hope to stem the tide of a far larger manifestation of crime and terrorism. John Alexander discusses multinational concerns and major demographic and political shifts that are already occurring in this region and why they are important to North American national interests. Included are international issues that combine social, economic, political, and security factors that should be of concern to everyone. He artfully connects the dots that clearly indicate that the generally unrecognized tensions in Latin America are integrally intertwined with global issues.


Author: Dennis M Murphy

Published: March 2008

YouTube, GoogleEarth, MySpace, cell phones.... New media has made the job of the warfighter infinitely more complex.


Published: March 2008

The Collins Center Update is a quarterly newsletter detailing the activities of the Center for Strategic Leadership, U.S. Army War College. Articles in this issue include: "The Center for Strategic Leadership: An overview of Recent and Future Activities", "Strategic Negotiation Exercises at Georgetown and Texas A&M Universities," and "Senior Leader Seminar (SLS) Concept Development."


Author: LTC Peter Andrysiak, COL Scott A Spellmon

Published: January 2008

In Counterinsurgency the sixth paradox states: "The host nation doing something tolerably is normally better than us doing it well." This paper explores this paradox and its relationship to building governance capacity through the (CERP). The authors describe the origins of the CERP program, its initial role in improving governance capacity in Iraq, and present an alternative method commanders can employ in their unit CERP program to achieve more positive effects in their governance line of operation.


Author: Michael J Metrinko

Published: January 2008

The upcoming Afghani elections are essential to the country's political development, and are a major step in the peaceful transmission of power. However, lack of security, pervasive corruption, reluctance to finance the effort,and disagreement over timing impact the feasibility of holding elections. While none of these factors in and of themselves is sufficient to prevent the upcoming elections, taken in combination they present a formidable challenge.


Author: Dennis M Murphy

Published: January 2008

The unfortunate truth about Strategic Communication is that we know it's important, but we don't quite know what it is....


Author: Arthur L Bradshaw, Dr Kent H Butts, Mr Brian D Smith

Published: January 2008

The Center for Strategic Leadership is hosting a series of workshops on "Using Sustainability to Build Stability in Africa: Strategic Policy Issues for the Army." The first was held 18-19 July 2007 and the second on 2-4 October 2007 at the Collins Center. Working within the context of U.S. Africa Command's strategic vision, the series is examining how the Army can leverage sustainability as an approach to engaging African nations.


Published: December 2007

The 2007 Proteus Workshop Report provides a detailed discussion of the highlights and proceedings of the workshop held 14-16 August 07 at the Center for Strategic Leadership, USAWC. The event, centered on examining future complex security issues through creative and holistic analysis and decision making across the elements of national power (Diplomatic, Informational, Military and Economic). The workshop's purpose was to identify relevant work that will assist strategic and high-operational level decision makers, planners, and analysts within the Joint, Interagency, Intergovernmental, and Multinational community in "outside the box" consideration and critical analysis of national, military, and intelligence issues. Representatives from U.S. Government agencies, think tanks, academia, international organizations, and the private sector participated.


Author: Jonathan David Farley

Published: December 2007

When then U.S. Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld was making this statement: "Today we lack metrics to know if we are winning or losing the global war on terror," the RAND journal Studies in Conflict and Terrorism was already attempting to address his concern. Wars are composed of battles, so presumably the war on terror is composed - at least in part - of battles against terrorist cells. But how can one tell if those battles have been won? How can we measure that? In this monograph, the author lays out a mathematical model for answering these questions. Although not meant to be all inclusive, he shows through his examples, some uses, details and suggestions for possible improvements in current processes. If one accepts the formalism of the model, with a few additional and reasonable assumptions, one can ask, "What is the structure of the 'perfect' terrorist cell? Which terrorist cells are most robust? Which cells are least likely to be disrupted if a certain number of its members have been captured or killed?"


Author: Christine A R MacNulty

Published: November 2007

Executive Summary: Intelligence, Information Operations (IO) and Strategic Communication (SC) require a deep cultural and contextual understanding of our adversaries and, in some cases, our allies. They also require a deep understanding of our own cultural biases, so that we see clearly while looking through our own cultural lens. While there may be a single "truth" out there, most of what we "see" and our adversaries "see" is perception, not truth. Although we have achieved some of our primary objectives in these areas, we have often only achieved first order results at the expense of longer-term strategic goals. In some cases, we have failed to achieve our desired results and have created unintended consequences because of a lack of a systems perspective and the ability to see patterns and understand complex systems on a strategic scale and a lack understanding different cultural context and cognitive dimensions.


Published: October 2007

The Collins Center Update is a quarterly newsletter detailing the activities of the Center for Strategic Leadership, U.S. Army War College. Articles in this issue include: "The Sixth Annual Reserve Component Symposium", "Linking Strategic Mission Command to Operational Battle Command", "Education for Transatlantic Security", "The Role of Armed Forces in the War on Terror" and "Transformation Efforts of the Moldovan Armed Forces."


Author: Mister William O Waddell, COL William L Wimbish III

Published: October 2007

The Proteus Management Group (PMG)hosted the second annual Proteus Futures Academic Workshop 14-16 August 07 at the Center for Strategic Leadership. This year's workshop provided international scholars from various organizationsand institutions across government, academia and the private sectorthe opportunity to present papers on topics and issues that explorecomplexity in the future global security environment. This year'sworkshop was the second in a series of annual futures academic workshopssponsored by the National Intelligence University, Office of the Directorof National Intelligence. The three-day event centered on examining futurecomplex security issues through creative and holistic analysis and decisionmaking across the elements of national power (Diplomatic, Informational, Militaryand Economic).


Author: Arthur L Bradshaw, Dr Kent H Butts

Published: August 2007

The Woodrow Wilson International Center and the Center for Strategic Leadership co-sponsored a Teaching Environment, Population, and Security Workshop, 22-23 May 2007.The purpose of this Professional Military Education oriented workshop was to determine how the Wilson Center could provide educational resources and support to military educators and researchers who identify the role of the military element of power in responding to environmental security challenges, determining policy implications of this involvement, and identifying roles and missions for further research.


Author: Prof Bernard F Griffard

Published: August 2007

The United States Army War College's Center for Strategic Leadership hosted the sixth annual Reserve Component Symposium, Achieving Unity of Effort in Responding to Crises, on 11-12 July 2007. The forum addressed pressing concerns surrounding military response and recovery operations conducted by the military's active and reserve components following major disasters within the United States.The symposium utilized four work groups, with each group addressing a different issue. This paper is the product of one of the work groups. The topic addressed is: The Evolving Relationship between the United States Northern Command and the Military's Reserve Component in Preparing for and Responding to Catastrophe.


Author: Prof Bert B Tussing

Published: August 2007

The United States Army War College's Center for Strategic Leadership hosted the sixth annual Reserve Component Symposium, Achieving Unity of Effort in Responding to Crises, on 11-12 July 2007. The forum addressed pressing concerns surrounding military response and recovery operations conducted by the military's active and reserve components following major disasters within the United States. The symposium utilized four work groups, with each group addressing a different issue. This paper is the product of one of the work groups, and the topic addressed is: The Potential Need to Establish an Appropriate Mechanism for the Military to Accompany and Support Civilian Components Focused on Regional Response to Catastrophe.


Author: Prof John F Troxell

Published: August 2007

The United States Army War College's Center for Strategic Leadership hosted the sixth annual Reserve Component Symposium, Achieving Unity of Effort in Responding to Crises, on 11-12 July 2007. The forum addressed pressing concerns surrounding military response and recovery operations conducted by the military's active and reserve components following major disasters within the United States. The symposium utilized four work groups with each group addressing a different issue. This paper is the product of one of the groups, and addresses the topic "The Military's Role in Supporting an Evolving National Response Plan.


Author: Mr John Elliot, Prof James O Kievit

Published: August 2007

The United States Army College's Center for Strategic Leadership hosted the sixth annual Reserve Component Symposium, Achieving Unity of Effort in Responding to Crises, on 11-12 July 2007.The forum addressed pressing concerns surrounding military response and recovery operations conducted by the military's active and reserve components following major disasters within the United States.The symposium utilized four work groups, with each group addressing a different issue.This paper is the product of one of the groups, and addresses the topic "The Development and Dissemination of a 'Common Operational Picture' in Preparation, Response and Recovery Operations between the Components of the Military and Civilian Authorities at all Levels of Government.


Author: Mr Anton K Smith

Published: July 2007

The global jihadist insurgency is undercutting the modern states system. Rebalancing focus on the instruments of national power is key to containing and shaping instability in the Middle East. The author calls for better understanding of the cultural and historical differences between the West and the rest of the world; understanding the primacy of economic development over political process; and alliances with regional states. This is a USAWC award-winning student paper. This paper received The Military Order of the World Wars Writing Award.


Author: LTC James D Campbell

Published: July 2007

Nearly 300 years of American military tradition, from the colonial period until 1941, created a deeply engrained facility with unconventional warfare. Since World From the Pequot War in 1637, to the Seminole Wars in the early nineteenth century, the Apache campaigns after the Civil War, and in twentieth century small wars from the Philippines to Vietnam, the mandate for human intelligence has been a key component of unconventional warfare. Since World War Two, the wider military has lost this expertise and comfort with unconventional operations, with the Special Operations community taking on the sole proprietorship of this role. The top research paper in the USAWC Research Competition captures the experience, and lessons, of fighting on the western plains after the Civil War, and the creation of the Philippine Scouts at the beginning of the twentieth century. This was named top research paper in this year's USAWC Research Competition.


Published: June 2007

The Collins Center Update is a quarterly newsletter detailing the activities of the Center for Strategic Leadership, U.S. Army War College. Articles in this issue include: Common Security and the Global War on Terror, Mobile Technologies and National Security, Unified Quest 2007 Capstone Wargame, JLASS Wargame Unique to All Senior Level War Colleges and Linking Strategic Mission Command to Operational Battle Command.


Published: April 2007

The Collins Center Update is a quarterly newsletter detailing the activities of the Center for Strategic Leadership, U.S. Army War College. Articles in this issue include: Strategic Decision Making Exercise (SDME) 2007, International Fellows Coalition Building Exercise 2007, Science & Technology Day, and Robotics Equipment Exhibition 2007, Ballistic Missile Defense System Readiness, Activation, Integration Deployment Exercise and C4 Architecture at the Dawn of Network Centric Warfare.


Author: Mr Kevin J Cogan

Published: March 2007

This issue paper focuses on Volume II of a much larger three volume case study entitled Network Centric Warfare Case Study: U.S. V Corps and 3rd Infantry Division (Mechanized) during Operation Iraqi Freedom Combat Operations (March-April 2003). The author critically analyzes the history of communications architecture acquisition before OIF and the inadequacy of current acquisition cycle times to keep pace with the rapid advances in technology, and specifically addresses three insights derived from his research.


Published: January 2007

The Proteus Management Group conducted its first futures academic workshop August 22-24, 2006 at the Center for Strategic Leadership. This highly successful workshop brought together interested international leaders and scholars from across various government, military, intelligence, academic and business communities to share their views on the application and use of the Proteus Insights and other new and innovative concepts, processes and methods. The 2006 Proteus Workshop Report provides a detailed discussion of the workshop highlights and proceedings.


Author: Ms Cindy E Ayers, Dr Jeffrey L Groh, Dennis M Murphy, Prof David John Smith

Published: January 2007

The Information in Warfare Working Group (I2WG) of the United States Army War College is pleased to present this anthology of selected student work from Academic Year 2006 representing examples of well-written and in-depth analyses on the vital subject of Information in Warfare. The compilation serves not only to showcase the efforts of the College but to inform the broader body of knowledge as the Nation struggles to operate effectively within the current information environment and to counter an adversary who so effectively exploits it.


Author: COL Dale C Eikmeier, Prof Bernard F Griffard

Published: December 2006

The current absence of an institutionalized process for long-range national security planning has placed Belize at a strategic disadvantage. To reduce risk and achieve Vision 2021, Belize is developing an integrated national security architecture that provides long-range planning and interagency coordination capability. Success in this area will allow Belize to take the lead in the development of a regional security strategy.


Published: December 2006

Articles in this issue include: Belize 2021: The National Security Framework, Three Volume Network Centric Warfare Case Study Published, International Diplomacy Exercise at Georgetown University, Strategic Leader Staff Ride Program Update and Military Operations Society (MORS) Workshop.


Author: Mister William O Waddell, COL William L Wimbish III

Published: November 2006

The Proteus Management Group (PMG) hosted the first annual Proteus Futures Academic Workshop 22-24 August 06 at the Center for Strategic Leadership, U.S. Army War College at Carlisle Barracks. This workshop was the culmination of a year of inaugural activities and was focused on providing experts from various organizations across the Department of Defense, Interagency, academia and the private and corporate sectors the opportunity to present papers on topics and issues related to the Proteus Insights that addressed future strategic national security challenges.


Author: Mr David W Cammons, Douglas Lindsay, LTC Alan Seise, John B Tisserand III, Duane E Williams

Published: November 2006

U.S. Army War College’s (USAWC) Center for Strategic Leadership in cooperation with the Office of the Secretary of Defense (OSD) Office of Force Transformation (OFT) initiated a study entitled “Network Centric Warfare Case Study: U.S. V Corps and 3rd Infantry Division (Mechanized) during Operation Iraqi Freedom (March-April 2003)” Previous case studies have quite adequately covered the “shooter-sensor” interface from a systems perspective. None, however, have addressed the impact of Network Centric Warfare (NCW) from the human perspective. This is the essence of land warfare, and why this study is so important. Volume I, entitled “Operations” uses the metrics provided in the NCW Conceptual Framework as the guide in the conduct of the analysis concerning the applicability of NCW tenets during the conduct of major offensive combat operations.


Author: Mr David W Cammons, Mr Kevin J Cogan, CPT Raymond G Delucio

Published: November 2006

“A View of Command, Control, Communications, and Computer Architectures at the Dawn of Network Centric Warfare,” provides the military reader with three insights: 1) a historical view of the advances in technology that ultimately enabled a computer communications network; 2) an encapsulation of the Army command, control, communications, and computer (C4) architecture for V Corps and 3 ID during the two specific timeframes referred to as pre-OIF and OIF-1; 3) an examination of future communications programs that are underway for the next generation of C4 architecture with respect to the ability of the DoD acquisition process to keep pace with the rapid advances in technology.


Published: November 2006

This volume builds upon the results of a study of Network Centric Warfare (NCW) entitled Network Centric Warfare Case Study, Volume I: Operations; U.S. V Corps and 3rd Infantry Division (Mechanized) during Operation Iraqi Freedom (March-April 2003).

During the past decade, United States Armed Forces have been in the process of transforming from an Industrial Age to an Information Age military. This transformation is a long way from being completed; however, the maneuver phase of Operation Iraqi Freedom demonstrated the emerging power and potential of information-networked forces.
This volume is meant to provide the military reader with two sets of insights: first, an introductory view of implications of network centric warfare for the operational and strategic levels of war, and second, a series of six short tactical-level battle stories or vignettes that can be used to further the study of network centric warfare tenets and to illustrate the impact of new technologies on organizations, leaders, and combat effectiveness.


Author: Diedre Collings, Rafal Rohozinski

Published: November 2006

The workshop on which this report is based occurred at an interesting historical juncture, just prior to the release of the updated Information Operations doctrine, and draft Counterinsurgency doctrine, as well as the formal adoption of Security, Stability, Transition and Reconstruction Operations (SSTRO) as an accepted DOD transition mission. The insights and record of debate contained within this report reflect the tensions, frustrations and expectations among senior practitioners during a time of rapid change and mounting challenges. The report captures important insights and points to the complexity and scope of the challenges. In this way provides elements of a roadmap for engagement. Please click on either the Full Version link or the Abridged Version link to access the respective copies of the report.


Author: COL Dale C Eikmeier, Prof Bernard F Griffard

Published: September 2006

This paper reports on the continuing process to develop Belize's roadmap to 2021, as exercised during the second strategy formulation workshop. Initiated by the Government of Belize, and supported by the United States' Southern Command, the national security strategy (NSS) formulation process workshop series is a model for drawing on the expertise of a nation's international partners to create the necessary synergies for the successful formulation of a national strategy.


Published: September 2006

Articles in this issue include: Improving the Militarys Domestic Crisis Response: Leveraging the Reserves, Strategic Communication in Domestic Disasters: The Military and the Media in an Intergovernmental Environment, Belize 2021: Ends, Ways, Means and Risk Management, Proteus: New Insights for a New Age, Regional Cooperation 2006 Executive Seminar and Disaster Preparedness in Central and South Asia.


Author: COL Richard W Dillon, COL James F Roth, Prof Bert B Tussing

Published: August 2006

In times of severe domestic crisis, the United States military is expected to be the quintessential support mechanism for response and recovery. A vital element of those efforts should be the Reserve Component; but recent history has seen the reserves misapplied, or overlooked in catastrophic response, perhaps when they were needed most. How to properly employ our Nation's military reserves in response to a domestic crisis was the focus of the fifth annual Reserve Component Symposium: Improving the Military's Domestic Response: Leveraging the Reserves.


Author: Ms Carol A Kerr, Dennis M Murphy

Published: August 2006

Strategic Communication during disaster response directly supports the ability of the U.S. government and it's military to establish a safe and secure environment for our citizens. Accurate public information is critical. Managing expectations and positively influencing perceptions by proactive education and training is equally important. Senior military commanders must provide accurate messages in conjunction with actions and images that instill confidence. In the end, Strategic Communication is commander's business.


Author: Prof Bernard F Griffard

Published: July 2006

Belize is uniquely positioned to be the link between Central America and the Caribbean regions. As a stable democracy Belize is in a position to promote good governance in both regions. However, the country has challenges that cannot be properly addressed in the absence of a cohesive national security strategy (NSS). Their recognition of a need for an integrated NSS has dovetailed with the Commander, USSOUTHCOM's efforts in promoting development of Regional Security Strategies for Central America and the Caribbean, and Belize is the first in the region to step up to the plate in this effort.


Author: Arthur L Bradshaw, Dr Kent H Butts, PROF Terry Klapakis

Published: July 2006

The Department of Defense's continued review of the United States capability and capacity for combating terrorism has identified significant gaps and areas for improvement. One of the critical areas is the need to effectively Counter Ideological Support to Terrorism, or CIST. To assist in those efforts a Joint Staff conference, The Military Role in Addressing the Underlying Conditions of Terrorism, was held in April. The conference brought together key interagency players with representatives from all of the Combatant Commands (COCOMs). COCOM representatives were able to learn the latest interagency programs to address CIST and the challenges to their implementation. The interagency representatives learned lessons from how the military element of power has been successfully used to support interagency efforts addressing local conditions that terrorists seek to exploit.


Author: COL William L Wimbish III

Published: June 2006

The Department of Defense has launched numerous initiatives to develop scenarios, models, simulations, and games to educate and assist strategic and operational intelligence analysts and decision-makers in dealing with future asymmetric and idiosyncratic complexity, especially as it relates to technology, social values, cultural norms, beliefs and human behavior. The Protean Media role-playing environment (RPE) or "Critical Thinking Game" is a prime example of the current initiatives. Protean Media is a "light" and low cost RPE, designed to model complex adaptive systems and naturally evolving events. This Game is a systems approach to human conflict. The Protean Media is not a total panacea for gaming or modeling complexity; however, it establishes the foundation for others to build upon.


Published: June 2006

Articles in this issue include: "Robotics Day", "Belize National Security Strategy Formulation Process Workshop #1", "The Strategic Rationale for Stability Operations", and "The Strategic Leader Staff Ride Program.


Published: March 2006

Articles included in this issue include: "DHS, DOD, Joint Staff, NORTHCOM Strategy Discussion", "The Military Global Distribution Game (MDMG)", "The Collins Center Senior Symposium 2006", "Countering Terrorism in the Asia-Pacific Region", "The International Fellows Coalition Building Exercise 2006.


Author: Arthur L Bradshaw, Dr Kent H Butts, Prof Bernard F Griffard

Published: February 2006

The "Ring of Fire" is a tough neighborhood. Covering a vast area in the Pacific Ocean region, it is the home of the majority of the world's active volcanoes and a series of dynamic tectonic plates that produce frequent, sometimes violent seismic events. While this is a fact of life in the region, the Tsunami of December 2004 provided additional impetus for the region's nations to explore additional measures for disaster preparedness. With this as their focus, senior civilian and military emergency planning professionals from Indonesia, Thailand, Viet Nam, Malaysia, Philippines, Australia, New Zealand, Mongolia, and the United States met in Honolulu Hawaii on 26-28 September 2005 for a Seismic Disaster Preparedness Conference hosted by the United States Pacific Command.


Published: February 2006

Articles included in this issue are: "Peace and Stability Education Workshop", "Army Reservists Mobilize to Support GWOT", "The Senior Leader Staff Ride Program", "USCENTCOM J5 Central and South Asian (CASA) Strategy Session", "China Minerals and Security", and "Information Operations and Winning the Peace".


Author: Dennis M Murphy

Published: December 2005

The "War of Ideas" is (or should be) a central component, and sometimes the main effort, of U.S. government activities in Iraq, Afghanistan, and elsewhere. Concerns about U.S. effectiveness in this arena remain high. The Israeli-Palestinian conflict offers a unique, parallel case study to explore successes, missteps, and missed opportunities of the use of information as an element of power during a counterinsurgency. Academicians, Department of Defense military and civilians, and representatives of U.S. diplomatic and intelligence communities joined officials form the UK Ministry of Defense and the Canadian Department of National Defense personnel to develop lessons learned and avenues for further investigation during a workshop at the U.S. Army War College.


Author: Dr Kent H Butts, COL Jeffrey C Reynolds

Published: December 2005

To be successful, the United States combating terrorism policy must include the synchronized use of defense, diplomacy and development to address the multiple elements of a combating terrorism strategy. This includes the underlying conditions that terrorists seek to exploit to undermine the legitimacy of governments and facilitate terrorist recruiting campaigns. As valuable as the attack and disrupt mission may be, it fails to help at risk countries establish conditions that counter ideological support to terrorism and promote regional stability. This book examines the strategies, interagency process and regional approaches of the United States combating terrorism effort, emphasizes the importance of addressing the underlying conditions in supporting mainstream Muslim efforts to reject violent extremism, and makes policy recommendations to improve this effort.


Author: COL Richard W Dillon, Prof James O Kievit, Prof Bert B Tussing

Published: October 2005

The Department of Defense believes that one of the most essential and promising areas of employment for the National Guard in defense of the homeland is in the area of Critical Infrastructure Protection (CIP). Seeking to validate this approach and assist in the development of implementing activities was the approach of the Center for Strategic Leadership's fourth annual Reserve Component workshop, Reinforcing the First Line of Defense: The Role of the National Guard in Critical Infrastructure Protection, conducted on 15-17 August 2005. Workshop participants examined the perspective of agencies and entities within and outside of the Department of Defense and used these perspectives as a springboard for the follow-on workshop groups to examine a series of questions to discern potential paths the National Guard might take, or reject, in support of Critical Infrastructure Protection. A final plenary session provided the assembled participants an opportunity to review and critique the individual work groups' findings and insights.


Author: M J Cross, Tammy S Schultz

Published: September 2005

Changing dynamics in peace and stability operations in locations such as Kosovo, Bosnia, Afghanistan, and Iraq, has shifted conditions in field operations. The changing environment requires educational institutions, both military and civilian, to reevaluate and adjust their curricula and educational programs. Toward that end the Peacekeeping and Stability Operations Institute (PKSOI) conducted an unclassified Education Workshop 13-15 September 2005 at the Center for Strategic Leadership, Collins Hall, Carlisle Barracks, PA. Educators and key leaders from the military services, the Joint Staff, international and non-government organizations, interagency offices, and centers of higher education came together to explore possible strategies to improve education for senior leaders engaged in peace and stability operations.


Published: September 2005

Articles included in this issue are: "The Fourth Annual Reserve Component Workshop", "The Senior Leader Staff Ride Program", "The Defense Industrial Base: A Historical Perspective", "The Belize Defence Force", "Special Operations Forces Education Conference, and Muscatatuck Urban Operations Training Center; Indianas Unique HLD/HLS Training Site.


Author: Dr Kent H Butts, Prof Bert B Tussing

Published: July 2005

Charges have been levied that the U.S. government's War on Terrorism is currently encumbered by an interagency process ill-suited for the task. Endeavors to address failed/failing states, reconstruction and stabilization, and other diverse efforts focused on the underlying conditions that foster terrorism, appear to be disjointed, with no central authority (save the President himself) to direct them. On 24 and 25 May 2005, the Army War College's Center for Strategic Leadership hosted the annual Collins Center Senior Symposium, which undertook the task of examining these purported shortcomings. The symposium brought together a distinguished panel of retired flag and general officers and government officials to engage in an examination of the issues focusing on the question of how the interagency process can be improved to better address the War on Terrorism.


Author: LTC Cheryl L Smart

Published: July 2005

The Cold War was portrayed as an epic clash of two ideologies – Western Democracy versus Communism. Section IV of the defining cold war document, National Security Council 68 (NSC 68), was entitled "The Underlying Conflict in the Realm of Ideas and Values between the U.S. Purpose and the Kremlin Design," and it argued that the basic conflict was between ideas – "the idea of freedom under a government of laws, and the idea of slavery under the grim oligarchy of the Kremlin."1 The adversary resided in the Soviet Union and violence in other regions in the world – including terrorist violence – was exported from or used by this center of Communism. Today, the war of ideas is Western Democracy versus Salafi Islam. Al Qaeda is the main enemy, with our main effort targeted to a particular geographic region – the Middle East, where undemocratic, repressive regimes represent the center of the opposing ideology. This is oversimplified, but there is some merit in such a mental picture.


Author: COL John C Buss

Published: July 2005

Over the past 15 years, the United States has been involved in seven major post-conflict reconstruction and stabilization operations.1 The ad hoc responses that characterized U.S. stabilization efforts in these missions have often proven inadequate. On each mission, our government has struggled to provide a responsive and enduring solution. The consequences have been the unnecessary loss of life, damage to infrastructure, and higher eventual costs for reconstructionand stabilization. Our unpreparedness to respond to the instability in post-war Iraq has met with sharp criticism. In response to these failings, the Bush administration established the U.S. Department ofState (DOS) Office of the Coordinator for Reconstruction and Stabilization (S/CRS). This paper will analyze the functions of S/CRS, examine the organization's relationship with the military, and offer Department of Defense (DOD) policy recommendations to improve the interagency cooperation with this new organization.


Author: Dr Kent H Butts, Prof Bert B Tussing

Published: July 2005

One of the four goals of the National Strategy for Combating Terrorism is to "Diminish the underlying conditions that terrorists seek to exploit." Addressing the underlying conditions of terrorism should be a component of a comprehensive and balanced U.S. combating terrorism policy that includes protecting the homeland and attacking and disrupting terrorist organizations. Co-sponsored by U.S. Pacific Command, the National Intelligence Council, and the United States Agency for International Development, the USPACOM Combating Terrorism Symposium brought together military and civilian representatives of the National Security interagency at Carlisle Barracks, Pennsylvania, June 8-10, 2005.


Published: June 2005

Articles included in this issue are: "Strategic Crisis Exercise 2005", "Collins Center Senior Symposium 2005", "Joint Land, Aerospace and Sea Simulation", "Unified Quest 2005 Takes the Army Back to the Future Again", "Senior Leader Staff Ride Program", "Transition of Strategic C4 Systems", and "Addressing the Conditions that Foster Terrorism Symposium".


Author: Arthur L Bradshaw, Dr Kent H Butts, Prof Bernard F Griffard

Published: March 2005

Effective disaster preparedness planning at the national and regional levels is a "high payoff" investment that governments can make in anticipation of large-scale natural or man-made disasters. The 2005 Indonesian area earthquake and tsunami and the resulting national, regional, and international response efforts energized the nations of South Asia to take a serious look at their disaster preparedness planning processes and at the critical gaps exposed by the magnitude of the disaster.


Author: Mr Scott T Forster

Published: March 2005

The US Central Command (USCENTCOM) hosted the Golden Spear Task Force Meeting and Initial Planning Conference in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 14-17 February 2005. Delegates were present from Kenya, Burundi, Egypt, Seychelles, Ethiopia, and Uganda while U.S. participation included USCENTCOM, United States European Command (USEUCOM), National Defense University (NDU), African Centre for Startegic Studies (ACSS), and the U.S. Army War College. The primary objectives for the conference included establishing the Golden Spear Task Force, determining the location for the Regional Support Center, proposing a Regional Disaster Management Coordination Mechanism, and Planning the way ahead for future Golden Spear Meetings.


Author: Dennis M Murphy

Published: March 2005

The first Gulf War was conducted with legacy systems straddling the industrial and emergent information age. The major combat operations phase of Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF), on the other hand, put into practice information age constructs and theory for the first time in warfare and was an unprecedented success in its speed and lethality. The impact of that network enabled campaign (often referred to as Network Centric Warfare) is the topic of a study conducted by the Center for Strategic Leadership, U.S. Army War College and commissioned by the Office of Force Transformation, U.S. Department of Defense. The study will be completed by the fall of 2005, but first drafts of the study hint at valuable operational and strategic insights


Author: Dr Kent H Butts, COL Jeffrey C Reynolds, Mr Alex Sonski

Published: March 2005

Environmental Security provides a low-cost, non-threatening opportunity for multi-lateral international and interagency cooperation and communication. Executing environmental security missions creates positive new roles for the military and builds governmental legitimacy in the eyes of the people. The US SOUTHCOM Environmental Security Training Workshop brought together military and civilian representatives of the seven Central American states in Alajuela, Costa Rica, January 17-24, 2005


Published: March 2005

Articles included in this issue are: "Transforming Military Logistics", "Stability Operations Symposium", "Unified Quest 2005 Future Warfare Seminar V", "Network Enabled Operations in Operation Iraqi Freedom: Initial Impressions", "U.S. Southern Command Environmental Security Training Workshop, "Golden Spear Task Force Meeting and Initial Planning Conference", "Coalition Building Exercise at Georgetown University", and U.S. Pacific Command South Asia Disaster Preparedness Workshop.


Published: December 2004

The Collins Center Update is a quarterly newsletter detailing the activities of the Center for Strategic Leadership, U.S. Army War College. Articles included in this issue are: "USCENTCOM Central Asian States Disaster Preparedness Workshop", "Gulf Region Disaster Preparedness Conference and Medical Workshop", "Third Annual Reserve Component Workshop", "International Fellows Coalition Building Exercise 2004", "Unified Quest 2005 Staff Planning Exercise, "CENTCOM Perceptions Workshop", "10/80th Battalion (CGSC) GCCS/JOPES Training", and Joint Urban Operations Sensors S&T Workshop.


Author: Prof Bernard F Griffard, RADM Robert T Moeller, RADM John F Sigler

Published: November 2004

Uninterrupted access to and use of critical infrastructure in the Arabian Gulf region are key to the successful prosecution of the Global War on Terror. To maintain access and use, the U.S. Central Command and its Gulf Region partners must deny outside organizations the ability to influence these requirements through terrorism. Essential to this will be information sharing and shared capabilties. To facilitate this endstate, theater security cooperation initiatives that promote regional collaboration are underway to improve national disaster preparedness capabilities and effective disaster preparedness training with partner nations.


Author: LTC Jeffery A Mcnary

Published: November 2004

A review of the roles of Army AC/RC forces in responding to either a chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear or high-yield explosive (CBRNE) attack on the territory of the United States. Examines the potential expansion of the military's role in the National Response Plan and suggests some planning, policy and procedural improvements. Identifies key entities with which responding military individuals and organizations have to be prepared to interact, pontential military consequence management missions, command and control arrangements, and issues/shortfalls. In addition to this paper you may want to read the associated reports of the three specific scenarios portrayed in the workshop.


Author: Prof James O Kievit, LTC Jeffery A Mcnary

Published: October 2004

A report of a seminar of subject matter experts examining a USAWC nuclear weapon attack scenario portraying terrorists detonating a nuclear device in Monroe County Pennsylvania. Participants identified key entities with which responding military individuals and organizations would have to be prepared to interact, potential military consequence management missions, command and control arrangements, and issues/shortfalls. If you find this paper useful you may want to read the reports of the other two scenarios (biological and dirty bomb attacks).


Author: Prof Michael J Pasquarett, COL John A Tanzi

Published: October 2004

A report of a seminar of subject matter experts examining a USAWC radiological detonation device (RDD) or "dirty bomb" at a prominent central Pennsylvania Travel Assistance Center (truck stop) between Harrisburg and Carlisle. Participants identified key entities with which responding military individuals and organizations would have to be prepared to interact, potential military consequence management missions, command and control arrangments, and issues/shortfalls. If you find this paper useful you may want to read the reports of the other two scenarios (nuclear and biological attacks).


Author: Dr Kent H Butts, LTC Curtis W Turner, Cdr Robert L Wohlschlegel

Published: October 2004

Southeast Asia faces five maritime security challenges: piracy, maritime terrorism, transnational criminal trafficking operations, refugees and illegal migration, and protecting energy routes. The United States-Republic of the Philippines co-hosted the Maritime Threats Workshop held in Cebu, Republic of the Philippines on 26-30 July 2004, focused on promoting multilateral interoperability and cooperation on maritime and environmental issues that foster terrorism; identifying maritime and transnational threats; discussing solutions to these issues; developing maritime protection capabilities; encouraging military support to civil authority; facilitating international and interagency cooperation (to include NGO/IOs); and strengthening the bonds between the military and civilian organizations. The workshop identified opportunities for regional defense security cooperation in responding to maritime and marine resource threats.


Author: LTC John C Traylor, Prof Bert B Tussing

Published: October 2004

A report of a seminar of subject matter experts examining a USAWC biological attack. The scenario portrayed a pandemic influenza outbreak transmitted to residents of Johnstown, Pennsylvania by a young boy who acquired the virus during a family vacation in Japan. Participants identified key entities with which responding military individuals and organizations would have to be prepared to interact, potential military consequence management missions, command and control arrangements, and issues/shortfalls. If you find this paper useful you may want to read the reports of the other two scenarios (nuclear and dirty bomb attacks).


Editor: Dr Kent H Butts, Prof Bernard F Griffard, LTC Curtis W Turner, John B Wheatley

Author: Doctor Kent H Butts, Prof Bernard F Griffard, LTC Curtis W Turner, John B Wheatley

Published: September 2004

This is the Foreword section of the Conference Report: "Environmental Security Planning, Prevention, and Disaster Response in the Arabian Gulf Region"


Editor: Dr Kent H Butts, Prof Bernard F Griffard, LTC Curtis W Turner, John B Wheatley

Author: Doctor Kent H Butts, Prof Bernard F Griffard, LTC Curtis W Turner, John B Wheatley

Published: September 2004

This is Appendix A of the Conference Report: Environmental Security Planning, Prevention, and Disaster Response in the Arabian Gulf Region. It contains the attendee list.


Editor: Dr Kent H Butts, Prof Bernard F Griffard, LTC Curtis W Turner, John B Wheatley

Author: Doctor Kent H Butts, Prof Bernard F Griffard, LTC Curtis W Turner, John B Wheatley

Published: September 2004

This is Appendix B of the Conference Report: Environmental Security Planning, Prevention, and Disaster Response in the Arabian Gulf Region. It contains the conference agenda.


Editor: Dr Kent H Butts, Prof Bernard F Griffard, LTC Curtis W Turner, John B Wheatley

Author: Doctor Kent H Butts, Prof Bernard F Griffard, LTC Curtis W Turner, John B Wheatley

Published: September 2004

This is Appendix C of the Conference Report: Environmental Security Planning, Prevention, and Disaster Response in the Arabian Gulf Region. It contains an explanation of the acronyms used within the report.


Editor: Dr Kent H Butts, Prof Bernard F Griffard, LTC Curtis W Turner, John B Wheatley

Author: Doctor Kent H Butts, Prof Bernard F Griffard, LTC Curtis W Turner, John B Wheatley

Published: September 2004

This is Chapter One of the Conference Report: Environmental Security Planning, Prevention, and Disaster Response in the Arabian Gulf Region. It contains: Introduction and Welcoming Remarks (Maj. Gen. Hamad bin Ali Al-Attia), Welcoming Remarks (Brig. Gen. George J. Trautman III), Welcoming Remarks and Setting the Azimuth (Dr. Kent Hughes Butts), Welcome and Introduction of Keynote Speaker (Ms. Alina Romanowski), and Keynote Address (Curtis Bowling)


Editor: Dr Kent H Butts, Prof Bernard F Griffard, LTC Curtis W Turner, John B Wheatley

Author: Doctor Kent H Butts, Prof Bernard F Griffard, LTC Curtis W Turner, John B Wheatley

Published: September 2004

This is Chapter Two of the Conference Report: Environmental Security Planning, Prevention, and Disaster Response in the Arabian Gulf Region. It contains: Introduction and Opening Remarks (Dr. Kent Hughes Butts), Report on Results of April 2000 Conference (Staff Col. Nasser bin Salim Al Tamtami), and Interagency Training for Disaster Response Exercise, September 2002 (Brig. Gen. Nasser Mohammed Al-Ali)


Editor: Dr Kent H Butts, Prof Bernard F Griffard, LTC Curtis W Turner, John B Wheatley

Author: Doctor Kent H Butts, Prof Bernard F Griffard, LTC Curtis W Turner, John B Wheatley

Published: September 2004

This is Chapter Three of the Conference Report: Environmental Security Planning, Prevention, and Disaster Response in the Arabian Gulf Region. It contains:Introduction and Petro-Chemical Environmental Concerns: Managing Environmental Pollution Resulting from Chemical and Hydrocarbon Materials (Mohammed Jassim Al-Maslamani), Water: Distribution and Water Quality in Qatar (Abdul Rahman Ali Al-Naama), and Health and Disease Response (Brig. Gen. Annette L. Sobel, M.D.)


Editor: Dr Kent H Butts, Prof Bernard F Griffard, LTC Curtis W Turner, John B Wheatley

Author: Doctor Kent H Butts, Prof Bernard F Griffard, LTC Curtis W Turner, John B Wheatley

Published: September 2004

This is Chapter Four of the Conference Report: Environmental Security Planning, Prevention, and Disaster Response in the Arabian Gulf Region. It contains: Introduction, 9/11: Multi-level Response and Management (Lieut. Col. Randy Lambrecht), Application of Remote Sensing to Environmental Hazard Mitigation (Dr. Michael Foose), and
Information Exchange and Management Tools: Partnership for Peace Information Management System and Defense Environmental Network Information Exchange (Ms. Jackie Hux Cain)


Editor: Dr Kent H Butts, Prof Bernard F Griffard, LTC Curtis W Turner, John B Wheatley

Author: Doctor Kent H Butts, Prof Bernard F Griffard, LTC Curtis W Turner, John B Wheatley

Published: September 2004

This is Chapter Five of the Conference Report: Environmental Security Planning, Prevention, and Disaster Response in the Arabian Gulf Region. It contains:Introduction, (Rear Admiral (Retired) John F. Sigler), Initial Reactions: Coordinating with the First Responders (Brig. Gen. Craig T. Boddington), Promoting Stability and Capability: Regional Cooperative Initiatives (Mr. Paul Malik), Turkish Earthquakes: Response, Lessons Learned, New Procedures and Mechanisms (Professor Mustafa Erdik), and Medical Responses (Dr. Abdul Wahab Al-Mosleh)


Editor: Dr Kent H Butts, Prof Bernard F Griffard, LTC Curtis W Turner, John B Wheatley

Author: Doctor Kent H Butts, Prof Bernard F Griffard, LTC Curtis W Turner, John B Wheatley

Published: September 2004

This is Chapter Six of the Conference Report: Environmental Security Planning, Prevention, and Disaster Response in the Arabian Gulf Region. It contains: Introduction, Coordinating Regional Disaster Response Activities (Mr. Gary Barrett), Environmental Post-Conflict Assessments: A New UN Tool Developed by UNEP (Mr. Pekka Haavisto), Existing Qatar and Gulf Cooperation Council Organizations and Mechanisms: Protection of the Environment (Mr. Khalid Al-Ali), and Multilateral Approaches to Consequence Management — A Medical Perspective (Brig. Gen. [Doctor] Mohammed Al-Abbadi)


Editor: Dr Kent H Butts, Prof Bernard F Griffard, LTC Curtis W Turner, John B Wheatley

Author: Doctor Kent H Butts, Prof Bernard F Griffard, LTC Curtis W Turner, John B Wheatley

Published: September 2004

This is Chapter Seven of the Conference Report: Environmental Security Planning, Prevention, and Disaster Response in the Arabian Gulf Region. It contains: Breakout Workshops Reports and Recommendations including Introduction, I. Defining Environmental Security and Setting Regional Objectives, II. Environmental Security Intelligence, Detection, and Information Sharing, III. Regional Center/Command and Control Center, IV. Regional Training and Exercises, V. Managing Health and Disease Consequences, and VI. Executive Committee: The Next Steps and Way Ahead


Editor: Dr Kent H Butts, Prof Bernard F Griffard, LTC Curtis W Turner, John B Wheatley

Author: Doctor Kent H Butts, Prof Bernard F Griffard, LTC Curtis W Turner, John B Wheatley

Published: September 2004

This is Chapter Eight of the Conference Report: Environmental Security Planning, Prevention, and Disaster Response in the Arabian Gulf Region. It contains: Closing Remarks of Commander, United States Central Command (General Tommy R. Franks, United States Army), Closing Remarks of the Ambassador of the United States to Qatar (Ambassador Maureen E. Quinn), and Closing Remarks of the Chief of Staff of the Qatar Armed Forces (Major General Hamad bin Ali Al-Attia)


Editor: Dr Kent H Butts, Prof Bernard F Griffard, LTC Curtis W Turner, John B Wheatley

Author: Doctor Kent H Butts, Prof Bernard F Griffard, LTC Curtis W Turner, John B Wheatley

Published: September 2004

This is the Executive Summary section of the Conference Report: Environmental Security Planning, Prevention, and Disaster Response in the Arabian Gulf Region


Author: Dr Kent H Butts, LTC Curtis W Turner

Published: September 2004

The United States Army in the Pacific (USARPAC), the Department of Defense (DUSD-I&E), and the United States Army War College conducted an Environmental Security Cooperation Workshop in Bangkok, Thailand from July 19-22, 2004. This workshop focused on multilateral cooperation in developing regional approaches to building governmental legitimacy and creating conditions inhospitable to terrorism. The Royal Thai Army (RTA) has taken a significant role in developing low-cost technologies that help rural communities address the important issues of poverty, food security, health, and the erosion of valuable topsoil. The program stresses sustainability, self-sufficiency, self-reliance, and economic and social progress. As a result of these efforts, support for the Thai government has increased dramatically and the ability of dissident groups to operate within the country has been significantly curtailed. This unique form of military support to civil authority has been praised by the national government for its effectiveness in reducing poverty and creating conditions unfavorable to radical ideology.


Author: Dr Kent H Butts, LTC Curtis W Turner

Published: September 2004

The Republic of the Philippines (RP) has undertaken a bold initiative to reform its national security architecture in order to more effectively address regional terrorist and other transnational threats. The focus of this symposium was to review the threats to regional security and the processes to develop the capabilities necessary to counter those threats. The symposium is the fifth in a series involving the Australia, Republic of the Philippines, and the United States to create a strategic culture in the RP Department of National Defense (DND) and the Armed Forces of the Philippines (AFP). Asia is a dynamic region in which multiple variables directly affect the security environment in the region; demographics, growing economies using greater natural resources, territiorial disputes, and growth of terrorist groups. In order to respond to these regional security threats, the Philippine Department of National Defense has developed a multiyear security and defense capability planning system.


Published: September 2004

Articles included in this issue are: "The Rule of Law: Foundation of Civilization", "United States Special Operations Command Education Conference 2004", "Trilateral Strategic Defense Capability Planning Symposium", "Ballistic Missile Defense System Exercise", "Environmental Security and Cooperation Workshop", "Maritime Threats Workshop", and "CSL on Point - Supporting Regional Security in the South Pacific"


Author: Dr Kent H Butts, Prof James O Kievit, LTC Thomas P Kratman, Mr Eugene L Thompson, LTC Curtis W Turner, Cdr Robert L Wohlschlegel

Published: September 2004

Articles included in this issue are: "The Rule of Law: Foundation of Civilization", "United States Special Operations Command Education Conference 2004", "Trilateral Strategic Defense Capability Planning Symposium", "Ballistic Missile Defense System Exercise", "Environmental Security and Cooperation Workshop", "Maritime Threats Workshop", and "CSL on Point-Regional Security in the South Pacific"


Author: LTC Curtis W Turner, Prof Bert B Tussing, Dr Richard L Winslow

Published: August 2004

The Subject Matter Expert Exchange program is viewed by USARPAC to be an important element in PACOM's Theater Security Cooperation program with both Malaysia and Indonesia. In Indonesia, in fact, it served as part of a "new beginning" in relations between our militaries, following a temporary cessation of International Military Education and Training (IMET) and associated programs. Perhaps as a function of the same, the questions raised in the Joint War College and the National Resilience Center in Indonesia were occasionally "pointed," revealing a perspective that sometimes casts the United States as a hegemonic giant beyond constraints. However, over time the CSL/NDU training team was able to promote a free and open dialogue with both our Indonesian and Malaysian audiences. In the end, the Commandants and Directors of all of the institutions visited by the briefing team had made it clear that they wanted to keep that dialogue open, and have already begun inquiries towards having the program continued in their countries. As such, both the American presenters and their hosts have reemphasized the importance of shared perspectives and discourse in broadening and strengthening our strategic partnership in South East Asia.


Author: Dr James D. Scudieri

Published: August 2004

This USAWC resident student paper is a comparative analysis of the British campaign in Mesopotamia during the First World War,1914-18 and the current campaign in Iraq, 2003-4, focused on an examination of Phase III decisive operations and Phase IV reconstruction operations, including strategic imperatives, operational planning, and the impact of changes during operations. Both campaigns suffered from a serious mismatch of ends and means at certain stages, especially for post-war reconstruction operations. The study concludes with recommendations for strategic leaders related to planning and force structure.


Editor: Arthur L Bradshaw, Dr Kent H Butts, Earl Green, John B Wheatley

Author: Arthur L Bradshaw, Doctor Kent H Butts, Earl Green, John B Wheatley

Published: July 2004

The Conference on Civil-Security Forces Environmental Cooperation in Central America and the Caribbean was held to share successful regional approaches to civil-security forces environmental cooperation, and to identify additional ways security forces and environmental and forestry authorities can work together to protect people from environmental threats to regional stability. Working groups on Training, Marine Resource Cooperation, and Terrestrial Resource Cooperation met and developed policy recommendations.


Author: COL Paul F Dicker

Published: July 2004

U.S. strategy after armed conflict in Iraq was to seal the victory through re-establishment of infrastructure and establishment of democratic civil bodies of government. Prior to the conflict there were several studies that highlighted critical military actions required to insure successful post-conflict stabilization of Iraq. These requirements were not accomplished. The stabilization effort was complicated by the looting and lawlessness resulting from the collapse of regime's military and security force. Post conflict failures in planning and operations, coupled with several inaccurate assumptions, degraded post-conflict stabilization efforts and likely lengthened the post-conflict period of violence and lawlessness. This paper examines and analyzes post conflict stability planning and operations, civil-military operations, and obstacles to achieving U.S. strategic goals in Iraq during the first 60 days of the conflict.


Author: Ms Priscilla Sellers

Published: July 2004

Indigenous assets will continue to be incorporated into major theater campaigns, particularly with the recent threat from failed or failing states. The value of such incorporation has been evidenced over time. While the benefit of the local asset depends upon the specific use and locale, the intelligence provided is value added to the US military. The benefit of local surrogates was recently highlighted in Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF). Indigenous fighters on the battlefield lessen the number of US and coalition fatalities which may correspondingly reduce the concerns of a "casualty phobic" US populace. In addition to training, surrogates require appropriate vetting in order to corroborate their information. US military handlers must be aware local assets may use the opportunity to pursue personal agendas or retaliation. Local forces are best characterized by their environments and those from resource-rich failed states may present a unique set of challenges for the US military handler The opportunity for the US military to train and cooperate with the indigenous fighter should be viewed as an initial step to foster the values and skills which will be required during the establishment of that nation's new government.


Author: Col Glenn Starnes

Published: July 2004

In the planning for the war in Iraq, Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld took a bold step and enacted a major change to the public affairs approach for military operations. In February 2003, he approved the concept of embedding reporters with frontline forces. The Secretary of Defense, along with other strategic leaders seeking to end Saddam Hussein's regime, wanted the American people and the world to see, hear and feel the war, up close and personal. The embedded reporters told a story that otherwise would not have been told. The Embedded Media Program was also an essential part of the Information Operations Campaign. Strategic and operational leaders leveraged (not manipulated) the media in order to enhance and in some cases achieve information operations objectives. Specifically, the US-led coalition countered Iraqi propaganda while affecting tactical and operational actions on the battlefield. The ability to leverage the media coverage of the war assisted the coalition in achieving information superiority.


Author: LTC Michael F Beech

Published: July 2004

Al Qaeda's attack on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon on September 11th, 2003 showed the World that a complex network of individuals, small groups and organizations coupled by a common sense of purpose and enabled by globalization could deliver a devastating attack upon the most powerful nation on Earth. This paper examines al Qaeda through the lens of Complexity Theory, which shows that this organization is a complex adaptive system that emerged as an agent of change within the strategic system of nation states. To defeat al Qaeda, or other complex global terrorist networks, traditional military strategies reliant on nation state frameworks and determination of centers of gravity and decisive points may not be sufficient. Using the characteristics of Complexity Theory, this paper identifies major inputs to expand the current strategy to defeat terrorism.


Author: LTC John D Nelson

Published: July 2004

Since the end of the first Gulf War the United States has fought in three decisive operations: Operation Allied Force in Kosovo, Operation Enduring Freedom in Afghanistan, and Operation Iraqi Freedom in Iraq. The principles of Rapid Decisive Operations influenced the pattern and conduct of operations in all three conflicts. This has been termed the "New American Way of War." These last three combat operations seem to ratify the ideas postulated in the concept of Rapid Decisive Operations, and appear to justify the force sizing choices made in the 2001 Quadrennial Defense Review. However, post conflict operations were never included as part of the force sizing calculus. Paradoxically it now takes more ground force to secure the peace in post conflict than to bring an end to decisive operations. This paper examines the paradox created by the "New American Way of War" and the increased need for ground forces to secure the peace compared to conducting decisive operations, focusing on the period of time in a campaign when decisive operations transition from conflict termination to post conflict stability operations.


Author: LTC Steven J Eden

Published: July 2004

This paper examines three case studies of wartime transformation, analyzes common factors leading to success, and suggests the kind of leadership the Army requires in its current effort to transform.


Published: June 2004

Articles included in this issue are: "Unified Quest 2004 Revisits Future War", "Joint Land, Aerospace, and Sea Simulation (JLASS)", "Strategic Crisis Excercise 2004", "The Shape of Things to Come", Environmental Security and Disaster Preparedness: Moving From Talking to Doing", "Military Robots at the War College".


Author: Amjad Atallah, Jarat Chorpa, Yaser Dajani, Orit Gal, PROF Joel Peters, Mark R Walsh

Published: June 2004

On 6-7 May 2004—in the wake of Likud’s rejection of Sharon’s disengagement plan from the Gaza Strip and parts of the northern West Bank—a group of Israelis, Palestinians and international officials and experts convened to address operational aspects of third party involvement in a withdrawal process. Chaired by Jarat Chopra and Mark Walsh, the meeting was hosted in Noordwijk aan Zee by the Netherlands Ministry of Foreign Affairs, sponsored by the Programme for Security in International Society at the University of Cambridge Centre of International Studies and organized with Strategic Assessments Initiative. The aim of the discussions was to consider what can and cannot work from a functional perspective, within the context of social and political realities. The meeting explored a range of issues affecting the design of any third party role during the period of an Israeli withdrawal from Palestinian territory. The participants combined local and regional expertise, direct knowledge of the parties’ positions and experience in complex peace operations, with humanitarian, military and transitional political elements. This mixture of individuals allowed the synthesis of area-specific information and lessons of multi-dimensional missions to produce comprehensive planning considerations. The following report is a reflection of the issues discussed, and incorporates many of the ideas contributed by the participants.
The report below identifies current strategic aspects of an Israeli withdrawal; describes the operating environment for a third party; outlines the potential nature of international involvement in the border regime, in Palestinian governance and in the transfer of assets in the Gaza Strip; and concludes with general planning factors and considerations.


Author: Dr Kent H Butts, LTC John C Traylor, Prof Bert B Tussing

Published: May 2004

The senior symposium on the Evolving Strategies for Critical Infrastructure Protection addressed the responsibilities for identifying, prioritizing and protecting critical infrastructure and key assets, shared between the federal, state and local governments, and within the private sector. The distinguished panel of participants addressed issues of authority and oversight for this protection; prioritization challenges; the role of the Department of Defense in CIP; and, in particular, the evolving role of NORTHCOM and the National Guard. The pervading themes throughout the symposium surrounded responsibiliity and accountability in our institutions, our businesses, and our population, in providing for the common defense.


Author: Prof Bert B Tussing

Published: May 2004

Given the immediacy of the terrorist threat, it is easy to become focused on terrorism only in regard to the United States. However, other nations, international organizations, and transnational law enforcement agencies such as Europol and Interpol are deeply committed to the counterterror effort. Seeing the Global War on Terror from their points of view provides both greater insight and greater opportunities for success. Such international perspectives on domestic security and counterterrorism were discussed at a Homeland Security Conference in London in February 2004. Presentations by experts from six different countries, the European Union, and NATO examined preparations against the new domestic threat from a range of perspectives that included the private sector; local and national governments; and international organizations.


Author: Dr Kent H Butts, LTC Curtis W Turner

Published: January 2004

Terrorist organizations in Southeast Asia have demonstrated the ability to exploit environmental disasters or degradation to undermine governmental legitimacy and gain popular support. One of the major causes of regional stability is poverty. Developing a regional counter terrorism capability, particularly as it pertains to poverty, developing efficient WMD consequence management, Disaster Response, and Critical Infrastructure Management programs, may serve as a rallying point of commons concern for countries in the region, and a foundation for other cooperative endeavors. In response to a request from the United States Pacific Command, the USAWC Center for Strategic Leadership conducted a Environmental Security and Counter Terrorism Conference in Manila, Philippines facilitated an assessment of the region's key Environmental Security issues, identify military roles in preventing terrorist activities, and develop multilateral plans for preventing and responding to disasters. The results of that assessment, taken from the perspective of representatives from Australia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, and Vietnam, are addressed in this paper.


Author: Prof James O Kievit, LTC Robert W Lindemann, LTC John C Traylor, Prof Bert B Tussing

Published: December 2003

Current rebalancing efforts underway within the Army will significantly reshape both the active and reserve components. Changes in mission focus, resource assignments, force structure and mobilizations processes are all likely as the Army seeks to implement the Secretary of Defense's guidance to rebalance the force. Recommendations include: RC volunteerism, Maintaining the Total Force Policy, Deployment Incentive Programs, Increased National Guard role in Homeland Defense, Expanded responsibilities for Joint State National Guard Headquarters, Transforming "mobilization" to "transition to active duty", Maintain warfighting roles in the RC, Developing and sustaining specialized CBRNE capabilities for "the domestic front" within DHS. Concluding that "Rebalancing the Force" is critical to executing the National Security Strategy.


Published: December 2003

Articles included in this issue are: "United States and United Kingdom Logistics Staff Talk", "Unified Quest 2004", "Focused Logistics Warfighting 2003", "AUSA New Corporate Member Luncheon", "Second Annual Reserve Component Workshop", "Addressing Transnational Threats in Southeast Asia", "Tactical Behaviors Conference", "International Fellows Coalition Exercise", "Strategic Leader Staff Ride Program".


Author: COL Herbert R Mcmaster

Published: November 2003

The author argues that acceptance of the assumption of certainty in future war is illogical because the claimed source of certainty - technology - is unable to remove or even reduce significantly principal sources of uncertainty in war. The idea that future war will be near-certain fails to account for enemy actions, reduces the complexity of warfare to identifying and targeting things, and ignores the human and psychological dimensions of war. Instead of pursuing situational certainty, only an embrace of the ambiguity of war, and the development of balanced Joint Forces, effective joint integration, and adaptive leaders will permit the flexibility that is the true key to future victories.


Author: Prof Bernard F Griffard, LTC Curtis W Turner, Prof Bert B Tussing

Published: November 2003

Today's threats to stability are trans-national in nature and rarely contained within the borders of one country. In most cases the consequences of a major terrorist action or environmental disaster will quickly overwhelm the management capability and response assets of the affected nation. When that occurs the maintenance of stability relies on effective regional, and if required, international assistance. A government that attempts to "go it alone" in today's environment runs the risk of losing the confidence of its citizens and, as a result, its viability.


Author: Prof Bernard F Griffard, Mr Todd M Wheeler

Published: October 2003

Professionalization of their nation's military establishment is a challenge for some Latin American democracies because of the historical baggage carried by their armed forces. However, the reality is that military organizations existing with less than adequate training and professional standards as well as operating in an under resourced environment are susceptible to corruption and politicization, and in that way pose a threat to further democratic development. At the request of United States Southern Command and in support of their efforts to assist the nations of Central and South America in developing a strategic planning process, the USAWC's Center for Strategic Leadership conducted a National Security Strategy Development Workshop in La Paz, Bolivia which which included the current class of 61 students (36 Military, 5 National Police and 20 Civilian Government personnel.) at the Bolivian Escuela de Altos Estudios Nacionales, their National War College.


Author: Prof James O Kievit, LTC Thomas P Murray

Published: October 2003

Ongoing debates on the role, size, structure, and use of the Army Reserve and National Guard eventually will lead to decisions that likely will affect the ability of the Nation to successfully fight and win both its current and future wars. To assist in exploring Reserve Component issues, the Center for Strategic Leadership hosted a dialogue in August 2003 among seven retired general officers representing service in the Active Army, the Army Reserve, and the Army National Guard. Selected insights from their discussions are found in this paper.


Author: Prof Michael J Pasquarett

Published: October 2003

During the planning for Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) the Department of Defense (DoD) developed an embedded media program that planned for large numbers of embedded reporters throughout military units. Unlike Vietnam in the 1970s, this program resulted in television reporting from within Iraq, especially from those reporters embedded with front lines units, almost instantaneously. The speed that these reports made it on the air often outpaced the military's communication channels. Although it gave the American citizens an immediate close up report of what their armed forces were doing, it handicapped media analysts and stateside reporters in their ability to put the raw reporting from the field into a larger context. Conversely those TV journalists supplying these spectacular reports and engrossing pictures from the front line were also handicapped in that they were reporting in a vacuum, unable themselves to obtain any kind of perspective or context.


Author: Dr Conrad C Crane

Published: September 2003

From 26 to 29 August 2002, the Army assembled representatives from its worldwide commands at Carlisle Barracks, Pennsylvania to assess Army operations to date in the global war on terrorism. The participant’s initial impressions focused on Operation Enduring Freedom and Noble Eagle. They highlighted rapid and successful responses at home and in distant theaters from Afghanistan to the Philippines. They also revealed some shortcomings in current operations and insights for future operations.


Author: Dr Kent H Butts, Christopher Jasparro, LTC Curtis W Turner

Published: September 2003

Environmental problems exacerbated by natural or man-made events can contribute to regional instability and conflict. Such environmental security related disasters hinder economic progress, displace populations, and facilitate the growth of undesirable elements, and terrorist activities. The conference conducted June 17-19, 2003, in Bangkok, Thailand was developed under the rubric of the Defense Environmental and International Cooperation (DEIC) Program of United States Army Pacific, with assistance from the Office of the Deputy Under Secretary of Defense for Installations and Environment (DUSD (I&E)), and Center for Strategic Leadership of the U.S. Army War College (USAWC/CSL), to promote multilateral cooperation on transnational threats between the regional states and USPACOM/USARPAC. In addition to the host country, key military, and civilian leaders at the flag officer, NGO, medical and governmental representatives from the Vietnam, Malaysia, Thailand, and the Philippines.


Published: September 2003

Articles included in this issue are: "Reporters on the Ground", "Assisting Professional Militaries in Latin America", "Ballistic Missile Defense System Initial Defensive Operations Excercise", "Building Effective Bilateral Relationships: U.S.-India", "U.S. Central Command Consequence Management Conference", "Central Asian States Disaster Response Conference", and "Strategic Leader Staff Ride Program.


Author: COL Frank L Miller Jr

Published: June 2003

The idea that civil order is impossible in a "non-permissive environment" is historically wrong. Stability operations have been conducted throughout the intensity levels of past wars and lesser contingencies. They should not be "on order" missions for combat forces, but "as needed" missions for a dedicated noncombatant organization. The transition has to be planned for, resourced, and initiated prior to the end of combat operations. Following the Vietnam-era USAID Public Safety Division's model, this critical mission of providing public safety immediately behind the leading edge of advancing combat forces can be executed. We just have to plan for it.


Author: COL Steven M Jones

Published: June 2003

A re-examination of urban warfare is needed—a new strategic warfighting paradigm and mandate for change. The urban environment provides advantages to adversaries that U.S. forces can ill afford. Cities, our future battlefields, demand a shift in warfighting strategy beyond the scope of the U.S. Department of Defense. Preparing for the future requires a broader concept for National Security; it requires a practical, resourced, and exceedingly well-trained interagency fighting force, rather than a theoretical interagency concept or a military force expected to do it all.


Published: June 2003

Articles included in this issue are: "Unified Quest 2003", "Joint Land, Aerospace, and Sea Simulation", "Center for Army Analysis and War College Sign Agreement", "Special Operations Conference on Education", "Senior Leader Education Program", "Civil-Military Cooperation to Protect the Environment in South America", and "Reviewing the Portrayal of the Reserve Component in Army Exercises and War Games."


Author: Amjad Atallah, Jarat Chorpa, Yaser Dajani, Orit Gal, James S Mccallum, PROF Joel Peters

Published: May 2003

Professor Jarat Chopra, Brown University, and Professor Jim McCallum, U.S. Army Peacekeeping Institute, and two Israeli authors, Orit Gal and Professor Joel Peters, and two Palestinian authors, Amjad Atallah and Yaser Dajani, wrote Planning Considerations for International Involvement in the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict -- Part II, as a result of a meeting they attended at the University of Cambridge Centre of International Studies, UK 25-26 April 2003. At that meeting a group of Palestinians, Israelis and international officials convened for the second time. This second report outlines the latest regional and ground developments in the wake of war in Iraq; identifies further requirements of intervention as required by the parties and the realities of the current situation; considers the current monitoring approach in the "Roadmap" and assesses the degrees of international commitment available generally for third party involvement.


Author: Arthur L Bradshaw, Dr Kent H Butts, Prof Bernard F Griffard, COL Jeffrey C Reynolds

Published: May 2003

This is a report of the April 2002 USCENTCOM conference on Environmental Security in Central Asia and the Caspian Basin. The conference brought together senior military and civilian leaders from Central Asia and the Caspian Basin states, international academics, government and military subject matter experts, and non-governmental organizations to examine critical environmental issues that affect the security of the region. This conference focused on promoting multilateral cooperation on environmental security issues and disaster relief planning.


Author: Prof James O Kievit, Prof Bert B Tussing

Published: April 2003

In April 2003 the United States Army War College Center for Strategic Leadership brought together a panel of selected flag and general officers to discuss issues surrounding the three new organizations addressing the challenge of homeland security: the Department of Homeland Security, the Assistant Secretary of Defense for Homeland Defense, and the United States Northern Command (NORTHCOM). The forum addressed roles and missions of the military in responding to homeland security requirements; plans, training and education to meet those requirements; and competing requirements and risk analysis surrounding the military's responsibilities in homeland security matters.


Published: March 2003

Articles included in this issue are: Ninth Strategic Crisis Exercise, Department of State Senior Leader Leader Workshop, Installation Management Agency's Strategic Planning Conference, Missle Defense Activation Rehearsal and Testing, Army-Air Force Warfighter, Army War College Professors Win International Award, United Kingdom-US Defense Industry Seminar


Author: Prof Bernard F Griffard

Published: March 2003

Establishing a foothold in the US defense market and sharing in the procurement dollars spent is critical to the transatlantic defense industry. The low level of defense spending among the EU nations has eroded the trust once shared between the US and its Allies. Providing the Army’s future leaders with an understanding of this situation and what groups are stakeholders is key to reducing their frustration level as they operate in this environment.


Author: Amjad Atallah, Jarat Chorpa, Gidi Grinstein, James S Mccallum

Published: March 2003

Professor Jarat Chopra, Brown University, and Professor Jim McCallum, U.S. Army Peacekeeping Institute, with an Israeli author, Gidi Grinstein, and a Palestinian author, Amjad Atallah, wrote Planning Considerations for International Involvement in the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict as a result of a meeting they attended in the Netherlands 5-7 January 2003. At that meeting a group of Palestinians, Israelis and international officials convened for the first time to address the operational aspects of third party intervention in the current conflict. The following report is a reflection of the issues discussed, and incorporates many of the ideas contributed by the participants.


Author: COL William L Wimbish III

Published: February 2003

On 2 February 2003, 23 Principal Deputy Assistant Secretaries, Deputy Assistant Secretaries and key Senior Executives from across the Department, gathered at the United States Army War College's (USAWC) Center for Strategic Leadership to discuss strategic leadership and organizational change. The three-day workshop, cosponsored by the USAWC and the Foreign Institute (FSI), was the third in a series of collegial partnership events between the U.S. Army and DOS.


Author: LTC Robert L Hesse, Dennis M Murphy, LTC Curtis W Turner

Published: December 2002

This issue paper summarizes the results of several post-conflict requirements symposia sponsored by the U.S. Army War College's Center for Strategic Leadership over a period of three years and considers these results in light of the Army's Title 10 responsibilities in post-conflict Iraq. In particular, it provides an outline of the general resource requirements for the major subordinate commands (MACOMs) of the Army who are responsible for planning and executing these responsibilities. Additionally, it considers the impact of other ongoing operations and plausible future operations that may drive risk management decisions by the MACOMs as they plan and execute tasks required by the strategic environment in Iraq and the region.


Author: Prof Bernard F Griffard

Published: November 2002

MG Joseph L. Yakovac, Program Executive Officer, Ground Combat Systems, sought to tap into industry for ideas on how the acquisition and development cycle might be streamlined so that the CSA's end of the decade deadline for the fielding of an FCS-equipped unit of action can be achieved. During an Army FCS Industry Day presented by the National Defense Industrial Association (NDIA) in August 2002, MG Yakovac asked industry participants to define the parameters for a Brave New World of Systems Acquisition.


Author: Dr Conrad C Crane, Mr Eugene L Thompson

Published: October 2002

During a 26-29 August 2002 conference conducted at the Collins Center for Strategic Leadership of the United States Army War College, a group of 51 representitives, from throughout the Army gathered to examine initial impressions from Operations Enduring Freedom and Noble Eagle (OEF/NE). Led by the Deputy Director for Strategy and policy, Army G-3, they examined the Global War on Terrorism (GWOT), at home and abroad, seeking ways to improve The Army's overall performance as well as capture, organize, and exploit leesons learned over the long term.


Author: Dr Kent H Butts, Prof Bernard F Griffard

Published: September 2002

Environmental problems exacerbated by natural or man-made events can contribute to regional instability and conflict. Such environmental security related disasters hinder economic progress, displace populations, and facilitate the growth of undesirable elements and the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction. Using these identified concerns as focus points, the Qatari Armed Forces and the USCENTCOM, with assistance from the Office of the Deputy Under Secretary of Defense for Installations and Environment (DUSD (I&E)), the National Defense University's Near East-South Asia Center for Strategic Studies (NESA), and the U.S. Army War College Center for Strategic Leadership (USAWC/CSL) conducted the second GCC-U.S. Environmental Security Conference, Environmental Planning, Prevention And Disaster Response In The Arabian Gulf, September 15-18, 2002 in Doha, Qatar.


Author: Dr Kent H Butts, Prof Bert B Tussing

Published: September 2002

Developed under the rubric of the Pacific Command's Security Cooperation Program, the workshop was a follow-on to the March 2002 USARPAC-USAWC strategic planning symposium dedicated to the development of a Defense Strategic Planning Initiative (DSPI) for the RP Department of National Defense. Under the personal oversight of the Secretary, the workshop was the second of what is envisioned to be a workshop series dedicated to what Secretary Reyes termed the "establishment of a strategic culture" within the DND and the Armed Forces of the Philippines (AFP).


Published: September 2002

Articles included in this issue are: The Army's Operation Enduring Freedom and Noble Eagle (OEF/NE) Initial Impressions Conference, Role of the Army National Guard and Army Reserve in the Army War College's Exercises and Wargames, Project Decatur, Eisenhower Series-Drucker Conference, Institutionalization of the Strategic Planning Process in Honduras, Joint Flag Officer Warfighting Course, and Schriever II Space Intelligence Seminar, 27-29 Aug 2002.


Author: Dennis M Murphy

Published: July 2002

The U.S. Army War College (USAWC) Center for Strategic Leadership (CSL) conducted a "Business Security in a Wired World" seminar in Rye, New York on 24-25 April 2002. Participants in the event included business executives representing critical infrastructure segments, government participants, and executives of two industry associations. The College's objective in the session was to obtain a better understanding of private sector concerns for information assurance and homeland security. Following the panels, CSL facilitators led a "crisis exercise" which examined key aspects of policy implementation, information sharing, stakeholder expectations, incident response and recovery, and organizational culture.


Author: COL Gregory A Adams, Michael H Crutcher, Prof James O Kievit, Thomas W Sweeney

Published: July 2002

Over twenty experienced senior business, civilian government, military, and academic leaders met for three days in mid-June at the U.S. Army War College's Collins Center to examine how leaders respond to various crises in their organizations. The specific objectives of the workshop, the 4th annual leadership symposium sponsored by the Army War College Foundation in honor of Anton Myrer's superb novel on military leadership, "Once An Eagle", included: Similarities and differences in how strategic leaders prepare for and respond to crises in each type of organization, What the leaders of each type of institution might learn from each other regarding leadership during crises, How better to educate strategic leaders.


Author: Arthur L Bradshaw, Dr Kent H Butts

Published: July 2002

On September 18 and 19, 2001, a two-day workshop on African security issues focusing on the Democratic Republic of the Congo. An assemblage of government, academic, and private sector experts joined together to deliver and listen to presentations on critical aspects of Central African security, and debated their conclusions and defended their positions in an informal exchange with United States intelligence community analysts.


Author: Arthur L Bradshaw, Dr Kent H Butts, Prof Bernard F Griffard

Published: June 2002

The United States Army War College Center for Strategic Leadership, the United States Southern Command (USSOUTHCOM), the U.S. Department of State, and the Tropical Agriculture Research and Higher Education Center (CATIE) cosponsored a validation workshop for Central American states entitled "Central American Environmental Defense Program in the Mesoamerican Biological Corridor." The workshop was held on the campus of CATIE in Turrialba, Costa Rica, on June 24th through the 27th, 2002. Attendees included Military and civilian officials from Guatemala, Honduras, Belize, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, and Panama.


Author: Prof Bernard F Griffard

Published: June 2002

With the goals of enhancing environmental cooperation between defense and environmental authorities of the region's states, and examining opportunities for multi-lateral and inter-agency cooperation, the Center for Strategic Leadership (CSL), USAWC, along with the Office of the Deputy Under Secretary of Defense for Installations and Environment (DUSD, I&E), and the U.S. Embassy Asuncion, cosponsored USSOUTHCOM's Regional Environmental Security Conference "Strengthening The Bonds Of Environmental Cooperation Between Security Forces And Environmental Institutions". Co-hosted by the Paraguayan Ministries of Defense and the Environment, the conference was conducted on May 28-31, 2002 in Asuncion, Paraguay. In addition to the host country, key military and civilian leaders at the flag officer and vice-ministerial level represented Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, and Uruguay.


Published: June 2002

Articles included in this issue are: "Vigilant Warriors 2002", "Joint Land Aerospace and Sea Simulation (JLASS)", "Land Power of the Central Asian States", "Anton Myer Leadership Workshop", "Missile Defense Activation Rehearsal and Testing (MDART)", "Joint Peace Operations Seminar 2002", and "Environmental Cooperation Between Security Forces and Environmental Institutions".


Author: Dr Kent H Butts, COL Jeffrey C Reynolds

Published: May 2002

The United States Central Command (USCENTCOM) conducted the conference Partnering for Environmental Security Cooperation in Central Asia and the Caspian Basin April 3-5, 2002 at the Armed Forces Recreation Center-Chiemsee, Germany. The purpose of the conference was to promote security cooperation with the Central Asian States through multilateral environmental security planning. The conference participants reviewed environmental challenges that threatened regional stability, identified obstacles to regional cooperation, and developed regional contingency plans that stressed interoperability and consequence management.


Author: COL Jeffrey C Reynolds, Prof Bert B Tussing

Published: May 2002

The Consequence Management Symposium was conducted by the Center for Strategic Leadership (CSL), at the Collins Center, United States Army War College on August 21-23, 2001. It was co-sponsored by the Center for Strategic and International Studies (CSIS). The purpose of the conference was to contribute to the ongoing debate over domestic defense, and to identify opportunities and approaches to solutions in this area of vital national interest. The symposium examined the infrastructure designed to meet those needs; evolving policy to strengthen that infrastructure; and, in particular, the role of the military in providing and supporting responses to catastrophic attacks on the civil sector.


Published: March 2002

Articles included in this issue are: "Observations from Enduring Freedom", Support to Near East Asia Center", "Vigilant Warrior 2002", "Department of State Strategic Planning Workshop", "Strategic Crisis Exercise 2002."


Author: Dr Kent H Butts, LTC Edward L Hughes

Published: December 2001

This conference was held to explore the national security dimensions of the U.S.-China economic relationship and to identify possible roles for the economic element of national power in formulating policy options. The conference was held 27-28 November, 2001.


Published: December 2001

Articles included in this issue are: "Economics and National Security: The case of China", "Space and Missle Defense Security Workshop", "Instructable Agents for Center of Gravity Analysis", "Army Resource Planning Conference 2001", "78th Division Leadership Conference", "International Fellows Coalition Building Exercise", and "Title 10- Goldwater Nichols Act Roundtable".


Author: Jarat Chorpa, James S Mccallum, Alexander Thier

Published: November 2001

On November 14, 2001 - the day after the fall of Kabul - the US Army Peacekeeping Institute, Carlisle, PA, in collaboration with the Thomas J. Watson Jr. Institute for International Studies at Brown University, hosted an informal meeting on Afghanistan. The purpose of the meeting was to explore a range of options and issues affecting the design of international intervention in Afghanistan. The following report is a reflection of the issues discussed, and incorporates many of the ideas contributed by meeting participants.


Author: Michael H Crutcher

Published: November 2001

This is an anthology of papers presented at a conference titled "Russian National Security: Perceptions, Policies, and Prospects" conducted from 4-6 December 2000. The book organizes the papers into six sections - The Russian National Security Community, Russia and Europe, Russian Policy Towards the Caucasus and Central Asia, Russia and Asia, Russia and the United States, and Russia's Military Transformation.


Author: COL Peter D Menk, Prof Bert B Tussing

Published: October 2001

This paper presents the preliminary findings and identifies some critical issues raised by The Homeland Group during the Workshop on Streamlining National Security 5 to 7 September 2001. Sixty subject matter experts gathered to discuss and explore concepts for restructuring certain areas within existing national security organizations.


Author: Patrick M Carney, COL Richard W Dillon, Prof James O Kievit, Prof Michael J Pasquarett

Published: October 2001

This paper presents the preliminary findings and identifies some critical issues raised by The Overseas Working Group during the Workshop on Streamlining National Security 5 to 7 September 2001. Sixty subject matter experts gathered to discuss and explore concepts for restructuring certain areas within existing national security organizations.


Author: COL Jeffrey C Reynolds, Prof Bert B Tussing

Published: September 2001

During a 21-23 August 2001 symposium a group of 80 subject matter experts examined the evolving policy and infrastructure surrounding Consequence Management. Participants concentrated on interagency and intergovernmental issues within this national challenge.


Published: September 2001

Articles included in this issue are: "Streamlining National Security", "CJCS Seminar on Peace Operations", "Deployment and Activation Rehearsal and Training II", "Global 'O1", and "Consequence Management".


Author: Prof Bernard F Griffard

Published: July 2001

The 7th annual conference on Promoting Stability in Central Asia was conducted 11-15 June 2001 in Kazakhstan. This conference focused on five major themes: Regional Security, Economic and Environmental Security Challenges, Regional Cooperation, and Recommendations to Enhance Regional Cooperation and Security.


Author: Michael H Crutcher

Published: July 2001

In early December 2000, over 25 specialists examined Russian National Security. The workshop examined that policy in terms of factors influencing Russia's perceptions of the world and itself, current Russian security and foreign policies in the world, and prospects for Russian interests and actions in the world.


Published: June 2001

Articles included in this issue are: "Contagion and Stability Game", "Army Transformation Wargame 2001", "Forcing Peace: Whether, When, Who, How", "Southcom Environmental Security Conference", "Department of State Strategic Planning Workshop", and "Joint Land, Aerospace and Sea Simulation - JLASS 2001".


Author: Dr Kent H Butts, COL Jeffrey C Reynolds

Published: May 2001

The Contagion and Stability game was conducted 15-17 May 2001 to exam medical issues that have an impact on national security. The game provided a forum to examine the military, economic, informational, political and medical aspects of contagion in an environmentally stressed region of the less-developed world.


Author: Dr Kent H Butts, Prof Bernard F Griffard

Published: April 2001

On 6-8 March 2001, USCENTCOM hosted this conference to examine the environmental security aspects of disaster response planning in Central Asia and Caspian Basin. Environmental issues central to security in the region were clarified and examined the importance of military environmental stewardship and cooperation.


Published: March 2001

Articles included in this issue are: "Evolving Policy for Homeland Defense", "Conventional Deterence in the First Quarter of the New Century", "Army Tranformation War Game Logistics Estimate Support", "Responding to Environmental Challenges in Central Asia and the Caspian Basin", "Strategic Crises Exercise", "Kosovo After Action Review", "Support to the Virginia National Guard", and "Tactics, Techniques, and Procedures Manual Development Conference".


Author: Arthur L Bradshaw, Dr Kent H Butts, Prof Bernard F Griffard, LTC Edward L Hughes

Published: March 2001

This discusses the results of a USCENTCOM conference discussing the Environmental Challenges in Central Asia and the Caspian Basin. Some of the issues discussed and reported on in this series of papers are the minimization of the military’s impact on the environment and the ways the military can support civil authorities.


Published: February 2001

This workshop, held 20-22 February 2001, investigated how U.S. national power Should be postured to remain an effective deterrent force in support of U.S. national security objectives in the 21st Century. Participants considered the geostrategic environment, U.S. national interests, and ways to employ national power.


Author: COL Peter D Menk

Published: January 2001

From 28-30 November 2000, the participants examined the use of United States military ground forces role in the post-conflict phase of operations. The post conflict phase is perhaps the most challenging, complex, and frustrating phase for the U.S. The participants examined possible missions for the U.S. military in this phase.


Published: December 2000

Articles included in this issue are: "Landmine Alternatives Conference", "Coalition Building Exercise", "Post-Conflict Strategic Requirements Workshop", "Support to CINCCENT", "LAN Upgrades at CSL", "Improving Civil-Military Training and Education", "Russian National Security Policy", and "Goldwater-Nichols Roundtable".


Author: Michael H Crutcher

Published: December 2000

This is an anthology of papers presented at a conference titled "Russian Armed Forces at the Dawn of the Millennium" conducted from 7-9 February 2000. The book organizes the papers into four sections- The Domestic-Political Environment, The State of the Russian Military, Russia’s International Situation and Russian Military Initiatives.


Published: September 2000

Articles included in this issue are: "Power Projection Wargame II", "Peace Operations Doctrine Conference", "Logistics Futures Roundtable", "Logisticians Prep for the Next AWTG", "Collins Center Upgrades", "Global '00", "Joint Flag Officer Warfighting Cource (JFOWC)", and "Challenges of Peace Support into the 21st Century".


Author: Arthur L Bradshaw, Dr Kent H Butts, Mr Brian D Smith

Published: July 2000

This is the report of a workshop held to explore the issue of use and impact on the world’s water resources by the world’s militaries. The workshop explored how militaries can accomplish their mission while lessening their impact on the environmental quality of water resources and the use of regular operations in risk management.


Published: June 2000

Articles included in this issue are: "Military Support to Rule of Law in Peace Operations", "Army Transformation Wargame 2000", "Migration, Environmental Change, and Security", "Strategic Crisis Exercise 2000", "Joint Land, Aerospace, and Sea Simulation", "The Role of American Military Power", "Nigeria Environmental Security Exercise", "Blue Advance 00", and "Global Command and Control System-Army".


Author: Dr Lawrence M Blotzer

Published: April 2000

Articles included in this issue are: Deterence in the 21st Century - Concensus, Key Points, and Conclusions.


Author: Michael H Crutcher

Published: April 2000

Articles included in this issue are: "The Russian Military at the Dawn of the Millennium" - "Physical Environment", "The Political Environment", "The Criminal Challenge", "The Kosovo Factor", "The Criminal Challenge", "The Economic Challenge", "Threat Perceptions", and "State of the Russian Military".


Published: December 1999

Articles included in this issue are: "Kentucky Governor Patton Kicks Off CSL's Senior Executive Program", "Global Guardian '99", "Global '99", "Democratization Initiatives Support Simulation", "Deterrence in the 21st Century Symposium", "The Role of the Military in Protecting the World's Water Resources", and "Upcoming CSL Events".


Published: August 1999

Articles included in this issue are: "Strategic Crisis Exercise, Joint Land, Aerospace, and Sea Simulation", "Army After Next", "Indian Environmental Security Workshop", "Y2K 2000", "DoD Education Summit", and "USSOUTHCOM Workshop".


Author: Arthur L Bradshaw, Dr Kent H Butts

Published: July 1999

This game report details the extent of the energy supplies available in the Caspian Sea Basin. The report then describes some of the transport and environmental constraints on use of these supplies by countries outside of the region. The bulk of the report consists of papers presented during the game.


Published: March 1999

Articles included in this issue are: "Nuclear South Asia Workshop", "Goldwater Nichols", "Caspian Sea Security Game", "AGNSS", "WMD Lecture Series", "Activities & Upcoming Events", and "Publications".


Author: Dr Kent H Butts, Ms Catherine A J Phinney

Published: May 1998

This workshop explored the how defense assets and expertise can be applied toward a number environmental resources, strategies, practices and operations. The workshop findings concentrated on the resources and options available in the Asia-Pacific region, primarily in climate change, energy, fisheries and disaster response.


Author: Arthur L Bradshaw

Published: January 1998

This executive seminar furthered the international community’s understanding of environmental security, promote the Department of State’s Environmental Hub concept, and to provide federal agencies and CINCs with regional perspectives on how the United States could use the environment to promote regional security.


Author: Dr Kent H Butts

Published: September 1997

This study elaborates conclusions and recommendations to enhance environmental aspects in security deliberations, and to include security considerations in national and international environmental policies and instruments. It also analyzes the relationship between environmental change and security.


Author: John D Auger

Published: August 1997

Preventative defense presumes that defense establishments have a role to play in addressing national concerns and promoting regional security and cooperation. Defense environmental cooperation can support this essential component of national security strategy.


Author: Prof James O Kievit, Prof Michael J Pasquarett

Published: March 1997

This paper recommends a bold restructuring of major portions of the Department of Defense and Department of State as an initial step in restructuring all U.S. national security organizations. The proposed changes are meant to improve the implementation of U.S. policy.